Login Register maintain the latest Samba releases in a yum repository, allowing for an easy and painless install or upgrade of Samba on your yum based Linux distribution.

To install the latest available Samba execute the following commands at the shell:

# cd /etc/yum.repos.d
# wget
# yum install samba

To upgrade an existing Samba install:

# cd /etc/yum.repos.d
# wget
## Note: edit sernet-samba.repo and add the line "gpgcheck=false" otherwise 
## it will not install as it is not signed
# yum update samba

Note: These steps will install the very latest build available at
If you require a less bleeding edge version of Samba, use the "tested" repo. This can be found at the following URL:

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I am pleased to finally report that the Centos release of Redhats 5.3 has been built and is available for download from

The highlights of this release can be found at the following URL:

The main areas of interest in my opinion excluding critical secirty fixes are:

  • Updated hardwaresupport support for the new Intel Core i7 (Nehalem) chips
  • Beefed up virtualiseation support increasing CPU and Ram limits of Virtual machines.
  • Inclusion of the fully open sourced OpenJDK. This makes Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.3 the first enterprise-ready solution with a fully open source Java stack when combined with JBoss Enterprise Application Platform.

For those who already have Centos 5.2 installed you can simply receive the update via Yum.

Before you do the following, check that  you do not have 3rd party repo's and the Centos-testing repo enabled.

You can display the currently enabled repo's using the following command.

$ yum repolist

Then as root at the prompt type:

$ yum update


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DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device) forms the storage redundancy portition of a HA cluster setup. Explained in basic terms DRBD provides a means of achieving RAID 1 behavoir over a network, where whole block devices are mirrored accross the network.

To start off you will need 2 indentically sized raw drives or partitions. Many how-to's on the internet assume the use of whole drives, of course this will be better performance, but if you are simply getting familar with the technology you can repartition existing drives to allow for two eqaully sized raw partitions, one on each of the systems you will be using.

There are 3 DRBD replication modes:
• Protocol A: Write I/O is reported as completed as soon as it reached local disk and local TCP send buffer
• Protocol B: Write I/O is reported as completed as soon as it reached local disk and remote TCP buffer cache
• Protocol C: Write I/O is reported as completed as soon as it reached both local and remote disks.

If we were installing the HA cluster on a slow LAN or if the geogrphical seperation of the systems involved was great, then I recommend you opt for asyncronous mirroring (Protocol A) where the notifcation of a completed write operation occurs as soon as the local disk write is performed. This will greatly improve performance.

As we are setting up our HA cluster connected via a fast LAN, we will be using DRBD in fully syncronous mode, protocol C.
Protocol C involves the file system on the active node only being notified that the write operation was finished when the block is written to both disks of the cluster. Protocol C is the most commonly used mode of DRBD.


global { usage-count yes; }
common { syncer { rate 10M; } }
resource r0 {
protocol C;
net {
max-buffers 2048;
ko-count 4;
on bailey {
device    /dev/drbd0;
disk      /dev/sda4;
meta-disk internal;
on giskard {
device    /dev/drbd0;
disk      /dev/sda3;
meta-disk internal;

drbd.conf explained:

Global section, usage-count. The DRBD project keeps statistics about the usage of DRBD versions. They do this by contacting a HTTP server each time a new DRBD version is installed on a system. This can be disabled by setting usage-count no;.

The common seciton contains configurations inhereted by all resources defined.
Setting the syncronisation rate, this is accoimplished by going to the syncer section and then assigning a value to the rate setting. The syncronisation rate refers to rate in which the data is being mirrored in the background. The best setting for the syncronsation rate is related to the speed of the network with which the DRBD systems are communicating on. 100Mbps ethernet supports around 12MBps, Giggabit ethernet somewhere around 125MBps.

in the configuration above, we have a resource defined as r0, the nodes are configured in the "on" host subsections.
"Device" configures the path of the logical block device that will be created by DRBD
"Disk" configures the block device that will be used to store the data.
"Address" configures the IP address and port number of the host that will hold this DRBD device.
"Meta-disk" configures the location where the metadata about the DRBD device will be stored.
You can set this to internal and DRBD will use the physical block device to store the information, by recording the metadata within the last sections of the disk.
Once you have created your configuration file, you must conduct the following steps on both the nodes.

Create device metadata.

$ drbdadm create-md r0
v08 Magic number not found
Writing meta data...
initialising activity log
NOT initialized bitmap
New drbd meta data block sucessfully created.

Attach the backing device.
$ drbdadm attach r0

Set the syncronisation parameters.
$ drbdadm syncer r0

Connect it to the peer.
$ drbdadm connect r0

Run the service.
$ service drbd start


Heartbeat provides the IP redundancy and the service HA functionailty.
On the failure of the primary node the VIP is assigned to the secondary node and the services configured to be HA are started on the secondary node.

Heartbeat configuration:


## /etc/ha.d/ on node1
## This configuration is to be the same on both machines
## This example is made for version 2, comment out crm if using version 1
// replace the node variables with the names of your nodes.

crm no
keepalive 1
deadtime 5
warntime 3
initdead 20
bcast eth0
auto_failback yes
node bailey
node giskard

// The configuration below set authentication off, and encryption off for the authentication of nodes and their packets.
//Note make sure the authkeys file has the correct permisisions chmod 600

## /etc/ha.d/authkeys
auth 1
1 crc

// is the VIP (Virtual IP) assigned to the cluster.
//the "smb" in the configuration line represents the service we wish to make HA
// /devdrbd0 represents the resource name you configured in the drbd.conf

## /etc/ha.d/haresources
## This configuration is to be the same on both nodes

bailey drbddisk Filesystem::/dev/drbd0::/drbdData::ext3 smb

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This useful  firefox plugin lets you integrate sugarcrm and gmail.

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Many motherboards nowadays have integrated gigabit ethernet that use the Realtek NIC chipset.

The Realtek r8168B network card does not work out of the box in Redhat/Centos 5.3: instead of loading the r8168 driver, modprobe loads the r8169 driver, which is broken as can be seen with ifconfig which shows large amounts of dropped packets. A solution is to download the r8168 driver from the Realtek website and install it using the following steps:

Check whether the built-in driver, r8169.ko (or r8169.o for kernel 2.4.x), is installed.

# lsmod | grep r8169

If it is installed remove it.

# rmmod r8169

Download the R8168B linux driver from here into /root.

Unpack the tarball :

# cd /root
# tar vjxf r8168-8.012.00.tar.bz2

Change to the directory:

# cd r8168-8.012.00

If you are running the target kernel, then you should be able to do :

# make clean modules   
# make install
# depmod -a
# insmod ./src/r8168.ko (or r8168.o in linux kernel 2.4.x)

make sure modprobe knows not to use r8169, and that depmod doesn’t find the r8169 module.

# echo "blacklist r8169" >> /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist
# mv /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/r8169.ko   \ /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/r8169.ko.bak

You can check whether the driver is loaded by using the following commands.

# lsmod | grep r8168
# ifconfig -a

If there is a device name, ethX, shown on the monitor, the linux driver is loaded. Then, you can use the following command to activate it.

# ifconfig ethX up

After this you should not see any more dropped packets reported.

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Dave Michelle at ITPRO writes a good review of the DS3400 San here.
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Recital 10 introduced the ECHO command. This command operates in the same way as the PHP ECHO command. It does not append a newline to the output but rather operates in the same way as the existing ?? command in Recital. The string being output can contain C-style string escapes \n \t or \r (newline, tab and carriage return respectively) e.g.
echo "Hello world\n"
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RTOS( [ <workarea> ] )


The RTOS() function returns all the fields in the current row as a string. The string will begin with the unique row identifier and then the deleted flag, followed by the data in the record. An optional workarea can be specified, otherwise the current workarea will be used


use backup in 0
use accounts in 0
for i = 1 to nrecs
  if rtos(accounts) != rtos(backup)
     debug("record "+recno()+" don't match")

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In this article Barry Mavin, CEO and Chief Software Architect for Recital debunks the myths and misrepresentations surrounding XBase and explains how Recital, an enterprise-class XBase platform, has overcome all the shortfalls and weaknesses of early XBase implementations.

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This website runs in a  virtual machine under vmware server. It is clustered between two servers using heartbeat and DRBD.
When VMware server starts up a virtual machine it generates a uuid (unique id) based on the machine it is running on and stores this in the .vmx file.
When heartbeat switches from slave to master, it will start VMware server (which is setup as a resource in the haresources file).
Virtual machines that you want started automatically when you start VMware server will not start because the uuid changes between the master and backup systems. To get around this problem always do the following:
  • edit the .vmx file and add the following line

    uuid.action = "keep"
If this is not done then everytime you try to run the virtual machine on the backup system in your cluster, VMware server will complain that the virtual machine has been copied or moved and it will not start it.
  • set the virtual machine to power off when vmware is stopped. Do not set this to "suspend" or it will not restart on the backup machine.
This will allow the virtual machine to start properly on the backup machine.
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