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The first step is to create an Apple Disk Image File (DMG) distribution in a GUI tool, I used DMG Packager.
Then create a directory that will contain all the files that you want included in the DMG file. The best way to do this is to mount the DMG file you created and copy the files into this directory. Then move the .app file created by BitRock into this directory.
Then run the hdiutil utility to create a DMG file
$hdiutil create /tmp/tmp.dmg -ov -volname "RecitalInstall" -fs HFS+ -srcfolder "/tmp/macosxdist/" 
Finally call hdutil to convert the writable, to a compressed (and such not writable) DMG
$hdiutil convert /tmp/tmp.dmg -format UDZO -o RecitalInstall.dmg
So now each time before you build a new distribution with the above commands, just move the new .app file into the directory containing the files to be added to the DMG file.
I've already added this to the makefile so after BitRock creates the .app file the hdiutil command is called to automatically generate the new DMG file.
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In this article Barry Mavin, CEO and Chief Software Architect for Recital debunks the myths and misrepresentations surrounding XBase and explains how Recital, an enterprise-class XBase platform, has overcome all the shortfalls and weaknesses of early XBase implementations.

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Recital on Linux 64 bit requires certain 32 bit libraries for installation and/or operation.  It also needs to be installed and configured as the root user, or using sudo for those systems without a root login.

For systems that do not have the xterm libraries installed, please install these to use xterm, or set the DB_TERM environment variable to start Recital from a terminal:
DB_TERM=gnome-terminal; export DB_TERM

This setting can be added to the /opt/recital/conf/recital.conf (text) file to make it available system-wide.

Please note that the Recital ODBC Driver for Linux requires a 32 bit ODBC Driver Manager.

Centos 6:

sudo yum install zlib-devel.i686 pam-devel.i686
(and accept dependencies)
Then run the installer in text mode
sudo ./recital-10.0.3-linux32.bin --mode text
Run Recital with sudo the first time, to set the system filetype compatiblity settings.
sudo recital
After saving the compatibility settings, quit to exit, then run Recital as your preferred user.
> quit
$ recital

RedHat / Fedora family:

sudo yum install zlib-devel.i686 pam.i686
(and accept dependencies)
Then run the installer in text mode
sudo ./recital-10.0.3-linux32.bin --mode text
Run Recital with sudo the first time, to set the system filetype compatiblity settings.
sudo recital
After saving the compatibility settings, quit to exit, then run Recital as your preferred user.
> quit
$ recital

 Ubuntu family:

sudo apt-get install ia32-libs 
In later versions of Ubuntu, ia32-libs is obsolete. The following package should be installed:
sudo apt-get install lib32z1
Ubuntu 12.04 and above also require the following:
sudo apt-get install libpam0g:i386
Then run the installer in text mode
sudo ./recital-10.0.3-linux32.bin --mode text
Run Recital with sudo the first time, to set the system filetype compatiblity settings.
sudo recital
After saving the compatibility settings, quit to exit, then run Recital as your preferred user.
> quit
$ recital

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Use iptables to restrict access to Recital Web only from localhost.

iptables -I INPUT -j ACCEPT -p tcp --destination-port 8001 -i lo
iptables -A INPUT -j DROP -p tcp --destination-port 8001 -i eth0

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This website runs in a  virtual machine under vmware server. It is clustered between two servers using heartbeat and DRBD.
When VMware server starts up a virtual machine it generates a uuid (unique id) based on the machine it is running on and stores this in the .vmx file.
When heartbeat switches from slave to master, it will start VMware server (which is setup as a resource in the haresources file).
Virtual machines that you want started automatically when you start VMware server will not start because the uuid changes between the master and backup systems. To get around this problem always do the following:
  • edit the .vmx file and add the following line

    uuid.action = "keep"
If this is not done then everytime you try to run the virtual machine on the backup system in your cluster, VMware server will complain that the virtual machine has been copied or moved and it will not start it.
  • set the virtual machine to power off when vmware is stopped. Do not set this to "suspend" or it will not restart on the backup machine.
This will allow the virtual machine to start properly on the backup machine.
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Recital 10 introduced the REQUIRE() and REQUIRE_ONCE() statement.

The REQUIRE() statement includes and executes the contents of the specified file at the current program execution level.

When a file is included, the code it contains inherits the variable scope of the line on which the include occurs. Any variables, procedures, functions or classes declared in the included file will be available at the current program execution level.

The REQUIRE_ONCE() statement is identical to the REQUIRE() statement except that Recital will check to see if the file as already been included and if so ignore the command.

The full syntax is:


REQUIRE_ONCE( "myapp/myglobals.prg" )
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Opening SSH to the outside world is a security risk. Here is how to restrict SSH access to certain IP addresses on a machine.

  1. Edit the /etc/hosts.allow file to include these lines, assuming your machine is on the 192.168.2.x nonrouting IP block, and you want to enable an external address of IP block: Remember to add the period on the end of each incomplete IP number. If you have another complete IP address or range, add a space and that range on the end.

    sshd,sshdfwd-X11: 192.168.2.
  2. Edit your /etc/hosts.deny file to include this line:

  3. These lines refuse SSH connections from anyone not in the IP address blocks listed.

Additionally you can restrict SSH access by username.

  1. Edit the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file and add the following lines

    PermitRootLogin no
    AllowUsers      user1 user2 user3 etc
    PasswordAuthentication yes

Now restart the ssh daemon for these changes to take effect

service sshd restart

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In this article Chris Mavin, explains and details how to use the Recital Database Server with the Open Source Servlet Container Apache Tomcat.


PHP has exploded on the Internet, but its not the only way to create web applications and dynamic websites. Using Java Servlets, JavaServer Pages and Apache Tomcat you can develop web applications in a more powerful full featured Object Oriented Language, that is easier to debug, maintain, and improve.

Tomcat Installation

There are a number of popular Java application servers such as IBM Web Sphere and BEA WebLogic but today we will be talking about the use of Apache Tomcat 5, the Open Source implementation of the Java Servlet and JavaServer Pages technologies developed at the Apache Software Foundation. The Tomcat Servlet engine is the official reference implementation for both the Servlet and JSP specifications, which are developed by Sun under the Java Community Process. What this means is that the Tomcat Server implements the Servlet and JSP specifications as well or better than most commercial application servers.

Apache Tomcat is available for free but offers many of the same features that commercially available Web application containers boast.

Tomcat 5 supports the latest Servlet and JSP specifications, Servlet 2.4, and JSP 2.0, along with features such as:

  • Tomcat can run as a standalone webserver or a Servlet/JSP engine for other Web Servers.

  • Multiple connectors - for enabling multiple protocol handlers to access the same Servlet engine.

  • JNDI - The Java Naming and Domain Interface is supported.

  • Realms - Databases of usernames and passwords that identify valid users of a web application.

  • Virtual hosts - a single server can host applications for multiple domain names. You need to edit server.xml to configure virtual hosts.

  • Valve chains.

  • JDBC - Tomcat can be configured to use any JDBC driver.

  • DBCP - Tomcat can use the Apache commons DBCP for connection pooling.

  • Servlet reloading (Tomcat monitors any changes to the classes deployed within that web server.)

  • HTTP functionality - Tomcat functions as a fully featured Web Server.

  • JMX, JSP and Struts-based administration.

Tomcat Installation

In this next two sections we will walk through the install and setup of Tomcat for use with the Recital database server.

To download Tomcat visit the Apache Tomcat web site is at
Follow the download links to the binary for the hardware and operating system you require.

For Tomcat to function fully you need a full Java Development Kit (JDK). If you intend to simply run pre compiled JavaServer pages you can do so using just the Java Runtime Environment(JRE).

The JDK 1.5 is the preferred Java install to work with Tomcat 5, although it is possible to run Tomcat 5 with JDK 1.4 but you will have to download and install the compat archive available from the Tomcat website.

For the purpose of this article we will be downloading and using Tomcat 5 for Linux and JDK 5.0, 
you can download the JDK at

Now we have the JDK, if the JAVA_HOME environment variable isn't set we need to set it to refer to the base JDK install directory.

$ JAVA_HOME= /usr/lib/j2se/1.4/
Windows NT/2000/XP:

Follow the following steps:

1. Open Control Panel.
2. Click the System icon.
3. Go to the Advanced tab.
4. Click the Environment Variables button.
5. Add the JAVA_HOME variable into the system environment variables.

The directory structure of a Tomcat installation comprises of the following:

/bin 			- Contains startup, shutdown and other scripts. 
	/common  	- Common classes that the container and web applications can use.
	/conf 		- Contains Tomcat XML configuration files XML files.
	/logs 		- Serlvet container and application logs.
	/server 		- Classes used only by the Container.
	/shared 		- Classes shared by all web application.
	/webapps 	- Directory containing the web applications.
	/work 		- Temporary directory for files and directories.

The important files that you should know about are the following:

  • server.xml

The Tomcat Server main configuration file is the [tomcat install path]\conf\server.xml file. This file is mostly setup correctly for general use. It is within this file where you specify the port you wish to be running the server on. Later in this article I show you how to change the default port used from 8080 to port 80.

  • web.xml

The web.xml file provides the configuration for your web applications. There are two locations where the web.xml file is used, 
web-inf\web.xml provides individual web application configurations and [tomcat install path]conf\web.xml contains the server wide configuration.

Setting up Tomcat for use

We'll start by changing the port that Tomcat will be listening on to 80.

To do this we need to edit [tomcat install path]/conf/server.xml and change the port attribute of the connector element from 8080 to 80.

After you have made the alteration the entry should read as:

<!-- Define a non-SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8080 -->
<Connector port="80" maxHttpHeaderSize="8192"

Next we want to turn on Servlet reloading, this will cause the web application to be recompiled each time it is accessed, allowing us to make changes to the files without having to worry about if the page is being recompiled or not.

To enable this you need to edit [tomcat install path]/conf/context.xml and change <Context> element to <Context reloadable="true">.

After you have made the alteration the entry should read as:

<Context reloadable="true">

Next we want to enable the invoker Servlet.

The "invoker" Servlet executes anonymous Servlet classes that have not been defined in a web.xml file.  Traditionally, this Servlet is mapped to the URL pattern "/servlet/*", but you can map it to other patterns as well.  The extra path info portion of such a request must be the fully qualified class name of a Java class that implements Servlet, or the Servlet name of an existing Servlet definition.

To enable the invoker Servlet you need to edit the to [tomcat install path]/conf/web.xml and uncomment the Servlet and Servlet-mapping elements that map the invoker /servlet/*.

After you have made the alteration the entry should read as:



If you are you not interested in setting up your own install of Tomcat there are prebuilt versions Tomcat that has all of the above changes already made, and has the test HTML, JSP, and Servlet files already bundled. Just unzip the file, set your JAVA_HOME

Next we will give Tomcat and your web applications access to the Recital JDBC driver.

For the purposes of this article we are going to install the Recital JDBC driver in the /[tomcat install path]/common/lib/ this gives Tomcat and your web applications access to the Recital JDBC driver. The driver can be installed in a number of places in the Tomcat tree, giving access to the driver to specific application or just to the web application and not the container. For more information refer to the Tomcat documentation.

Copy the recitalJDBC.jar which is located at /[recital install path]/drivers/recitalJDBC.jar to the /[tomcat install path]/common/lib/ directory.

$cp /[recital install path]/drivers/recitalJDBC.jar /[tomcat install path]/common/lib/
Once you have completed all the steps detailed above, fire up the server using the script used by your platform's Tomcat installation.

[tomcat install path]/bin/
[tomcat install path]/bin/startup

If you are having problems configuring your Tomcat Installation or would like more detail visit the online documentation a the Apache Tomcat site.

Example and Links

Now we have setup our Tomcat installation, lets get down to it with a JSP example which uses the Recital JDBC driver to access the demonstration database (southwind) shipped with the Recital Database Server.

The example provided below is a basic JDBC web application, where the user simply selects a supplier from the listbox and requests the products supplied by that supplier.

To run the example download and extract the tar archive or simple save each of the two jsp pages individually into /[tomcat install path]/webapps/ROOT/ on your server.

By enabling the invoker Servlet earlier we have removed the need to set the example up as a web application in the Tomcat configuration files.

You can now access the example web application at http://[Server Name]/supplier.jsp if the page doesn't display, check you have followed all the Tomcat installation steps detailed earlier in this article and then make sure both Tomcat and a licensed Recital UAS are running.

Archive: jspExample.tar

Right click and save as individual files and rename as .jsp files:
supplier.txt details.txt

Further Reading on JSP and JDBC can be found at

Final Thoughts

Recital and Apache tomcat are a powerful combination, using Java Servlet technology you can separate application logic and the presentation extremely well. Tomcat, JSP, Java Servlets and the Recital database server form a robust platform independent, easily maintained and administered solution with which to unlock the power of your Recital, Foxpro, Foxbase, Clipper, RMS and C-SAM data.

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In this article Barry Mavin explains step by step how to setup a Linux HA (High Availability) cluster for the running of Recital applications on Redhat/Centos 5.3 although the general configuration should work for other linux versions with a few minor changes.

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Yes, your FoxPlus and FoxPRO applications should run under Recital with little to no changes at all. We provide expert product support if you have any questions or problems. If you lack the resources to move your applications into Recital we can provide that service to you also if required.
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Copyright © 2019 Recital Software Inc.



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