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A really nice plugin for eclipse that lets you write/edit  Trac wiki pages in eclipse.

http://trac-hacks.org/wiki/EclipseTracPlugin
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The SET RELATION Recital Navigational Data Command can be used to link two (or more) tables based on the master index key of the child table.  With a relation active, as you move through the parent table, the record pointer also moves in the child table, automatically selecting the first related record or moving to the end of file if no related record exists.    

open database southwind
// open child table
use order_details order orderid in 0
// open parent table
use orders order orderid in 0
set relation to orderid into order_details
do while not eof()
? orders.orderid, order_details.productid
skip
enddo

The code above will display the productid from the first related record, but you will often want to display information from all the related records in the child or detail table as in an SQL Left Outer Join.

open database southwind
select orders.orderid, order_details.productid;
from orders left outer join order_details;
on orders.orderid = order_details.orderid

In this case, we can use a second nested DO WHILE loop, for example:

open database southwind
use order_details order orderid in 0
use orders order orderid in 0
set relation to orderid into order_details
do while not eof()
// Display first or 0 child record
? orders.orderid, order_details.productid
// Display any additional child records
do while not eof(order_details)
? orders.orderid, order_details.productid
skip in order_details
enddo
skip
enddo

Or we can use the SET SKIP command.  The SET SKIP command can be used with DISPLAY, LIST and REPORT and automatically skips through all the related records in the child table.

open database southwind
use order_details order orderid in 0
use orders order orderid in 0
set relation to orderid into order_details
set skip on
set skip to order_details
list orders.orderid, order_details.productid

LIST and DISPLAY offer a number of keyword options to allow you to configure the display output.  REPORT offers full column based report design.
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Recital is a dynamic programming language particularly suited to the development of database applications. While Recital still supports standard procedural programming, new extensions to the language give you the power and flexibility of object-oriented programming. Object-oriented design and object-oriented programming represent a change in focus from standard procedural programming. This short primer will give you a good understanding of how to program object-oriented Recital.
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This article looks at the range of client access mechanisms for Windows that can be used with the Recital C-ISAM Bridge and details bridge configuration and usage.

Overview

Just because the format of data is regarded as 'legacy' does not make that data in any way obsolete. Modern client interfaces can not only extend the life of long-term data, but also provide different ways to analyse and gain advantage from that data.

Recital Corporation provides a range of solutions to interface to Informix compliant C-ISAM data on Linux or UNIX from Windows clients.

.NET

Click image to display full size

Fig 1: Recital Mirage .NET application accessing the C-ISAM Demo table.


Recital offers two alternative ways to access C-ISAM data using Microsoft .NET:

The Recital .NET Data Provider is a managed Data Provider written in C# that provides full compatibility with the Microsoft SQLserver and OLE DB data providers that ship with the .NET framework. It is fully integrated with the Visual Studio .NET IDE supporting data binding and automatic code generation using the form designer. The Recital .NET Data Provider works in conjunction with the Recital Database Server for Linux or UNIX to access C-ISAM data.

Recital Mirage .NET is a complete solution for migrating, developing and deploying 4GL database applications. Recital Mirage .NET works in conjunction with the Recital Mirage .NET Application Server for Linux or UNIX to access C-ISAM data.

JDBC

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Fig 2: Java™ Swing JTable accessing the C-ISAM Demo table via the Recital JDBC Driver.


The Recital JDBC Driver is an all Java Type 4 JDBC 3.0 Driver, allowing you to access C-ISAM data from Java applets and applications. The Recital JDBC Driver works in conjunction with the Recital Database Server for Linux or UNIX to access C-ISAM data.

ODBC

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Fig 3: Microsoft® Office Excel 2003 Pivot Chart and Pivot Table accessing the C-ISAM Demo table via the Recital ODBC Driver.


The Recital ODBC Driver is an ODBC 3.0 Driver, allowing you to access C-ISAM data from your preferred ODBC based Windows applications. You can develop your own applications in languages such as C++ or Visual Basic, manipulate the data in a spreadsheet package or word processor document and design charts, graphs and reports. The Recital ODBC Driver works in conjunction with the Recital Database Server for Linux or UNIX to access C-ISAM data.

Configuring the Recital C-ISAM Bridge

Data access is achieved through a C-ISAM Bridge.  This requires the creation of an empty Recital table that has the same structure as the C-ISAM file and of a RecitalC-ISAM Bridge file.

On Linux and UNIX, Recital Terminal Developer and the Recital Database Server come complete with an example C-ISAM data file, C-ISAM index and Recital C-ISAM bridge that can be used for testing and as a template for configuring your own C-ISAM bridges.  The Recital Database Server also includes a bridge creation ini file.

Step 1:

Create a Recital table with the same structure as the C-ISAM file.  The fields/columns in the structure file must exactly match the data type and length of those in the C-ISAM file.  The Recital table will have one byte more in total record length due to the Recital record deletion marker.

To create the table, use the SQL CREATE TABLE command or the Recital Terminal Developer CREATE worksurface.  The SQL CREATE TABLE command can be called directly:

SQLExecDirect:
  In:      hstmt = 0x00761BE8,
    szSqlStr = "CREATE TABLE cisamdemo.str (DD Char(4)
              DESCRIPTION "Dd...", cbSqlStr = -3
  Return:  SQL_SUCCESS=0

or be included in a 4GL program:

// createtab.prg
CREATE TABLE cisamdemo.str;
    (DD Char(4) DESCRIPTION "Dd",;
     CONFIRM Char(6) DESCRIPTION "Confirm",;
     PROCDATE Char(6) DESCRIPTION "Procdate",;
     CONTROL Char(5) DESCRIPTION "Control",;
     DOLLARS Decimal(13,2) DESCRIPTION "Dollars",;
     DEALER Char(5) DESCRIPTION "Dealer",;
     TERRITORY Char(2) DESCRIPTION "Territory",;
     WOREP Char(12) DESCRIPTION "Worep",;
     CURRTRAN Char(3) DESCRIPTION "Currtran",;
     TRADDATE Char(6) DESCRIPTION "Traddate",;
     CITY Char(10) DESCRIPTION "City",;
     ACCOUNT Char(11) DESCRIPTION "Account",;
     PRETRAN Char(2) DESCRIPTION "Pretran",;
     AFSREP Char(14) DESCRIPTION "Afsrep",;
     REPKEY Char(9) DESCRIPTION "Repkey",;
     BRANCH Char(3) DESCRIPTION "Branch",;
     WODEALER Char(5) DESCRIPTION "Wodealer",;
     BANKCODE Char(2) DESCRIPTION "Bankcode",;
     COMMRATE Decimal(6,4) DESCRIPTION "Commrate",;
     NEWREP Char(1) DESCRIPTION "Newrep",;
     SETTLE Char(1) DESCRIPTION "Settle",;
     POSTDATE Char(6) DESCRIPTION "Postdate")
if file("cisamdemo.str")
    return .T.
else
    return .F.
endif
// end of createtab.prg

Server-side 4GL programs can be called by all clients, e.g. from a Java class with a JDBC connection:

//---------------------------------
//-- create_str.java --
//---------------------------------
import java.sql.*;
import java.io.*;
import Recital.sql.*;

public class create_str {

  public static void main(String argv[]) {
    try {
      new RecitalDriver();
      String url = "jdbc:Recital:" +
        "SERVERNAME=cisamserver;" +
        "DIRECTORY=/usr/recital/data/southwind;" +
        "USERNAME=user;" +
        "PASSWORD=password";
      Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(url, "user", "pass");
      Statement stmt = con.createStatement();

      CallableStatement sp = con.prepareCall("{call createtab}");
      boolean res = sp.execute();
      String outParam = sp.getString(1);
      System.out.println("Returned "+outParam);
      sp.close();
      con.close();
    } catch (Exception e) {
      System.out.flush();
      System.err.flush();
      DriverManager.println("Driver exception: " + e.getMessage());
      e.printStackTrace();
    }
    try {
      System.out.println("Press any key to continue...");
      System.in.read();
    } catch(IOException ie) {
      ;
    }
  }
}

The table should be given a ‘.str’ file extension (rather than the default ‘.dbf’) to signify that this is a structure file only.

Please see the end of this article for information on matching Informix and Recital data types



Fig 4: Recital CREATE/MODIFY STRUCTURE worksurface for character mode table creation.

Step 2: Creating the Bridge File

If you have Recital installed on the server platform, the Bridge File can be created using the CREATE BRIDGE worksurface.  The corresponding command to modify the bridge file is MODIFY BRIDGE <bridge file>.  This is the cisamdemo.dbf bridge file in the CREATE/MODIFY BRIDGE WORKSURFACE:

> modify bridge cisamdemo.dbf


Fig 5: Recital CREATE BRIDGE/MODIFY BRIDGE worksurface for bridge creation.

For Recital Database Server clients, the Bridge File can be created using the Recital/SQL CREATE BRIDGE command:

Recital/SQL CREATE BRIDGE:
CREATE BRIDGE cisamdemo.dbf;
  TYPE "CISAM";
  EXTERNAL "cisamdemo.dat";
  METADATA "cisamdemo.str";
  ALIAS "cisamdemo"

or:

CREATE BRIDGE cisamdemo.dbf;
  AS "type=CISAM;external=cisamdemo.dat;metadata=cisamdemo.str;alias=cisamdemo"

The examples above assume that the C-ISAM file, the bridge file and the Recital structure file are all in the current working directory.  Full path information can be specified for the <externalname> and the <databasename>.  For added flexibility, environment variables can be used to determine the path at the time the bridge is opened.  Environment variables can be included for either or both the <externalname> and the <databasename>.  A colon should be specified between the environment variable and the file name.

e.g.

  CREATE BRIDGE cisamdemo.dbf;
  TYPE "CISAM";
  EXTERNAL "DB_DATADIR:cisamdemo";
  METADATA "DB_MIRAGE_PATH:cisamdemo.str";
  ALIAS "cisamdemo"
Recital CREATE BRIDGE/MODIFY BRIDGE worksurface:


Fig 6: Recital CREATE BRIDGE/MODIFY BRIDGE worksurface - using environment variables.

Using the Bridge

The Bridge can now be used.  To access the C-ISAM file, use the ‘alias’ specified in the Bridge definition.

SQL:
SELECT * FROM cisamdemo
Recital/4GL:
use cisamdemo

Indexes

The cisamdemo.dat file included in the Recital distributions for Linux and UNIX has three associated index keys in the cisamdemo.idx file:

Select area: 1
Database in use: cisamdemo
Alias: cisamdemo
Number of records: 4
Current record: 2
File Type: CISAM (C-ISAM)
Master Index: [cisamdemo.idx key #1]
Key: DD+CONFIRM+PROCDATE+CONTROL
Type: Character
Len: 21   (Unique)
Index: [cisamdemo.idx key #2]
Key: DD+SUBSTR(CONFIRM,2,5)+TRADDATE+STR(DOLLARS,13,2) +CURRTRAN+ACCOUNT Type: Character Len: 42 Index: [cisamdemo.idx key #3] Key: DEALER+BRANCH+AFSREP+SUBSTR(PROCDATE,5,2) +SUBSTR(CONTROL,2,4) Type: Character Len: 28

The Recital C-ISAM bridge makes full use of the C-ISAM indexes.  SQL SELECT statements with WHERE clauses are optimized based on any of the existing indexes when possible.  The following ODBC SELECT call makes use of key #3 rather than sequentially searching through the data file.

SQLExecDirect:
  In:      hstmt = 0x00761BE8,
    szSqlStr = "select * from cisamdemo
      where dealer+branch+afsrep=' 00161   595-7912",
      cbSqlStr = -3
  Return:  SQL_SUCCESS=0

Get Data All:

"DD", "CONFIRM", "PROCDATE", "CONTROL", "DOLLARS", "DEALER", 
"TERRITORY", "WOREP", "CURRTRAN", "TRADDATE", "CITY", "ACCOUNT", 
"PRETRAN", "AFSREP", "REPKEY", "BRANCH", "WODEALER", "BANKCODE", 
"COMMRATE", "NEWREP", "SETTLE", "POSTDATE"

"0159", " 15522", "930312", "13356", 4992.60, "00161", "19", 
"", "210", "930305", "", "70000100009", "", "595-7912", 
"930315791", "", "", "59", 0.0000, "1", "", "930315"
1 row fetched from 22 columns.

Using the Recital/4GL, the primary index is set as the master index when the bridge is first opened.  Any secondary indexes can be selected using the SET ORDER TO <expN> command.  The Recital/4GL SEEK or FIND commands and SEEK() function can be used to search in the current master index.

> SET ORDER TO 3
Master index: [cisamdemo.idx key #3]
> SEEK “00161   595-7912”

Appendix 1: Data Types

Informix

Recital

Byte

Numeric

Char

Character

Character

Character

Date

Date

Datetime

Character

Decimal

Numeric

Double Precision

Float

Float

Real

16 Bit Integer

Short

Integer

Numeric

Interval

Character

32 Bit Long

Integer

Money

Numeric

Numeric

Numeric

Real

Numeric

Smallfloat

Numeric

Smallint

Numeric

Text

Unsupported

Varchar

Character

Appendix 2: C-ISAM RDD Error Messages

The following errors relate to the use of the Recital CISAM Replaceable Database Driver (RDD).  They can be received as an ‘errno <expN>’ on Recital error messages:


ERRNO()

Error Description

100

Duplicate record

101

File not open

102

Invalid argument

103

Invalid key description

104

Out of file descriptors

105

Invalid ISAM file format

106

Exclusive lock required

107

Record claimed by another user

108

Key already exists

109

Primary key may not be used

110

Beginning or end of file reached

111

No match was found

112

There is no “current” established

113

Entire file locked by another user

114

File name too long

115

Cannot create lock file

116

Memory allocation request failed

117

Bad custom collating

118

Duplicate primary key allowed

119

Invalid transaction identifier

120

Exclusively locked in a transaction

121

Internal error in journaling

122

Object not locked

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Recital's version of Samba allows application data to be shared and locked correctly across these systems, allowing a truly integrated heterogeneous data environment. For example Recital applications running on a UNIX/Linux server can read and update FoxPro databases residing on a Microsoft Windows NT server through the use of Samba.
You can view the modified changes by downloading the following files and patching these into your current Samba installation.
open.c (file opening and share modes)
version.h (versioning information)
The variable CPPFLAGS in the file Makefile will require the define -DRECITAL added to it.
In order to make the locking compatible between UNIX/Linux and Windows the following environment variable must be placed in the profile.db for Unix/Linux Developer and in profile.uas for the Universal Application Server:
DB_SAMBA=YES ;export DB_SAMBA 
The following settings need to be added to the smb.conf file to ensure that file names are always converted to lower case:
preserve case = no 
default case = lower 
mangle case = yes 
The following settings need to be added to the smb.conf file for locking to operate correctly:
oplocks = False
share modes = no
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MQCURMSGS()

Syntax

MQCURMSGS( <expN> )

Description

The MQCURMSGS() function returns the current number of unread messages in the queue specified by <expN>

Example

mqdes=mqopen("/myqueue")
if (mqdes < 0)
   messagebox(strerror()+",errno="+alltrim(str(error())))
   return
endif
do while (mqcurmsgs(mqdes) > 0)
   mstr=mqreceive(mqdes)
   if (empty(mstr))
      messagebox(strerror()+",errno="+alltrim(str(error())))
      return
   endif
   messagebox(mstr)
end do
mqclose(mqdes)

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Recital provides a wide variety of connectivity solutions to external data sources. This article provides an overview.
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In this article Barry Mavin, CEO and Chief Software Architect for Recital, details how to use the Client Drivers provided with the Recital Database Server to work with local or remote server-side OLE DB data sources.

Overview

The Recital Universal .NET Data Provider provides connectivity to the Recital Database Server running on any supported platform (Windows, Linux, Unix, OpenVMS) using the RecitalConnection object.

The Recital Universal JDBC Driver provides the same functionality for java applications.

The Recital Universal ODBC Driver provides the same functionality for applications that use ODBC.

Each of the above Client Drivers use a connection string to describe connections parameters.

The basic format of a connection string consists of a series of keyword/value pairs separated by semicolons. The equal sign (=) connects each keyword and its value.

The following table lists the valid names for keyword/values.


Name Default Description

Data Source
-or-
Server
-or-
Nodename

 

  The name or network address of the instance of the Recital Database Server which to connect to.
Directory   The target directory on the remote server where data to be accessed resides. This is ignored when a Database is specified.

Encrypt
-or-
Encryption

false When true, DES3 encryption is used for all data sent between the client and server.
Initial Catalog
-or-
Database
  The name of the database on the remote server.
Password
-or-
Pwd
  The password used to authenticate access to the remote server.
User ID   The user name used to authenticate access to the remote server.

Connection Pooling
-or-
Pool

false Enable connection pooling to the server. This provides for one connection to be shared.
Logging false Provides for the ability to log all server requests for debugging purposes
Rowid true When Rowid is true (the default) a column will be post-fixed to each SELECT query that is a unique row identifier. This is used to provide optimised UPDATE and DELETE operations. If you use the RecitalSqlGrid, RecitalSqlForm, or RecitalSqlGridForm components then this column is not visible but is used to handle updates to the underlying data source.
Logfile   The name of the logfile for logging
Gateway  

Opens an SQL gateway(Connection) to a foreign SQL data source on the remote server.

Using Gateways, you can transparently access the following local or remote data sources:

  • Recital
  • Oracle
  • ODBC (Server-side ODBC data sources)
  • JDBC (Server-side JDBC data sources)
  • ADO (Use this to connect to SQL Server and other Native Windows OLEDB data sources)
  • MySQL
  • PostgreSQL

The gateway can be specified in several formats:

servertype@nodename:username/password-database

e.g.

oracle@nodename:username/password-database

mysql@nodename:username/password-database

postgresql@nodename:username/password-database

-or-

odbc:odbc_data_source_name_on_server

oledb:oledb_connection_string_on_server

jdbc:jdbc_driver_path_on_server;jdbc:Recital:args


To connect to a server-side OLE DB data source, you use the gateway=value key/value pair in the following way.

gateway=oledb:oledb_connection_string_on_server

Important
When specifying the connection string be sure to quote the gateway= with "...".

You can find examples of connection strings for most ODBC and OLE DB data sources by clicking here.

Example in C# using the Recital Universal .NET Data Provider:
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// include the references below
using System.Data;
using Recital.Data;
 
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// The following code example creates an instance of a DataAdapter that 
// uses a Connection to the Recital Database Server, and a gateway to
// the SQL server Northwind database. It then populates a DataTable 
// in a DataSet with the list of customers. The SQL statement and 
// Connection arguments passed to the DataAdapter constructor are used 
// to create the SelectCommand property of the DataAdapter.
public DataSet SelectCustomers()
{
	string gateway = "oledb:Provider=sqloledb;Initial Catalog=Northwind;
		Data Source=localhost;Integrated Security=SSPI";
	RecitalConnection swindConn = new 
		RecitalConnection("Data Source=localhost;gateway=\""+gateway+"\");
	RecitalCommand selectCMD = new 
		RecitalCommand("SELECT CustomerID, CompanyName FROM Customers", swindConn);
	selectCMD.CommandTimeout = 30;
	RecitalDataAdapter custDA = new RecitalDataAdapter();
	custDA.SelectCommand = selectCMD;
	swindConn.Open();
	DataSet custDS = new DataSet();
	custDA.Fill(custDS, "Customers");
	swindConn.Close();
	return custDS;
}
Example in Java using the Recital Universal JDBC Driver:
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// standard imports required by the JDBC driver
import java.sql.*;
import java.io.*;
import java.net.URL;
import java.math.BigDecimal;
import Recital.sql.*;
 
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// The following code example creates a Connection to the Recital 
// Database Server, and a gateway to the SQL server Northwind database. 
// It then retrieves all the customers.
public void SelectCustomers()
{
    // setup the Connection URL for JDBC
	String gateway = "oledb:Provider=sqloledb;Initial Catalog=Northwind;
		Data Source=localhost;Integrated Security=SSPI";
	String url = "jdbc:Recital:Data Source=localhost;gateway=\""+gateway+"\";
	// load the Recital Universal JDBC Driver
	new RecitalDriver();
 
	// create the connection
	Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(url);
	// create the statement
	Statement stmt = con.createStatement();
	// perform the SQL query
	ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT CustomerID, CompanyName FROM Customers");
	// fetch the data
	while (rs.next()) 
	{
		String CompanyID = rs.getString("CustomerID");
		String CompanyName = rs.getString("CompanyName");
		// do something with the data...
	}
    
	// Release the statement
	stmt.close();
	
	// Disconnect from the server
	con.close();
}
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In this article Yvonne Milne looks at the use of the Recital Remote Data Connectivity Functions with Recital Database Gateways.

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We are pleased to announce the release of Recital 10.0.3.

Here is a brief list of features and functionality that you will find in the 10.0.3 release.

  • New Commands:
    - SET TMPNAMPATH ON|OFF
    - REMOVE TABLE
  • New Functions:
    - CURSORGETPROP()
    - CURSORSETPROP()
    - CURVAL()
    - GETFLDSTATE()
    - OLDVAL()
    - TABLEREVERT()
    - TABLEUPDATE()
    - SETFLDSTATE()
  • Enhanced Functions:
    - TMPNAM() - additional parameter to specify the return of basename only
    - MAILATTACH() - parameter changed from array to filename to allow directory and file extension to be specified
  • Enhancements:
    - DO level increased from 32 to 64.
  • Fixes:
    - Delay exiting Recital after SYS(3) or SYS(2015)
    - SET SOFTSEEK issue when search key above first record in index
    - Compilation error with REPLACE command after UDF call
    - FETCH INTO memvars error
    - END TRANSACTION at command prompt error
    - ROLLBACK locking error
    - Linux ODBC Driver undefined symbol error
    - RELEASE variable with same name as variable in calling program issue
    - SQLCODE() issue on non-gateway data access
    - Issuing two SQLEXEC() calls error
    - LASTSEQNO() in workareas > 1 error
    - SET RELATION to detail table in workarea 1 issue
    - LIST STATUS on empty table delay
    - SET AUTOCATALOG alias entries error
    - ADD OBJECT in DEFINE CLASS error
    - DEACTIVATE WINDOW error
    - SORT error
    - Other reported bugs
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