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Subclipse is an Eclipse Team Provider plug-in providing support for Subversion within the Eclipse IDE. This plugin is required in order to use the recital eclipse workspace.
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A good article describing the configuration of samba for file/record locking can be found here.

Basically you must add these directives to the smb.conf file:

oplocks = False 
level2 oplocks = False

The default oplock type is Level1. Level2 oplocks are enabled on a per-share basis in the smb.conf file. Alternately, you could disable oplocks on a per-file basis within the share: 

veto oplock files = /*.dbf/*.DBF/*.ndx/*.NDX/*.dbx/*.DBX/*.dbt/*.DBT/

You can further tune samba by following this guide.

If you specify the Common Internet File System (CIFS) when you mount the samba share then you must specify the following options
mount -t cifs {mount-point} -o username=name,pass=pass,directio
The directio option is used to not do inode data caching on files opened on this mount. This precludes mmaping files on this mount. In some cases with fast networks and little or no caching benefits on the client (e.g. when the application is doing large sequential reads bigger than page size without rereading the same data) this can provide better performance than the default behavior which caches reads (readahead) and writes (writebehind) through the local Linux client pagecache if oplock (caching token) is granted and held. Note that direct allows write operations larger than page size to be sent to the server.

If you get the following error when trying to mount the {mount-point}
Apr 22 16:57:39 bailey kernel: Status code returned 0xc000006d NT_STATUS_LOGON_FAILURE
Apr 22 16:57:39 bailey kernel:  CIFS VFS: Send error in SessSetup = -13
Apr 22 16:57:39 bailey kernel:  CIFS VFS: cifs_mount failed w/return code = -13
The you need to create the Samba user specified on the mount command
smbpasswd -a username
FYI - Make sure you umount all the Samba {mount-point(s)} before shutting down Samba.
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I am pleased to finally report that the Centos release of Redhats 5.3 has been built and is available for download from

The highlights of this release can be found at the following URL:

The main areas of interest in my opinion excluding critical secirty fixes are:

  • Updated hardwaresupport support for the new Intel Core i7 (Nehalem) chips
  • Beefed up virtualiseation support increasing CPU and Ram limits of Virtual machines.
  • Inclusion of the fully open sourced OpenJDK. This makes Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.3 the first enterprise-ready solution with a fully open source Java stack when combined with JBoss Enterprise Application Platform.

For those who already have Centos 5.2 installed you can simply receive the update via Yum.

Before you do the following, check that  you do not have 3rd party repo's and the Centos-testing repo enabled.

You can display the currently enabled repo's using the following command.

$ yum repolist

Then as root at the prompt type:

$ yum update


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When using Recital on linux you can integrate your favorite linux shell commands and use then directly inside Recital using the alias command. This can be particularly useful when you ssh into a remote system and run recital. You can then issue linux commands without having to open another terminal session. Several aliased shell commands are predefined in /opt/recital/conf/config.db. You can add others to suit your needs.
On my system i have these commands aliased.
alias pwd  "? default()"
alias cp   "copy file "
alias mv   "rename "
alias rm   "erase "
alias ls   "run('ls $0')"
alias ps   "run('ps $0')"
alias grep "run('grep $0')"
alias cd   "set default to $1"
alias cls  "clear screen"
These commands can now be used inside the Recital command window just as you would use them at the linux prompt, including the ability to pipe commands together.
ls -l | grep .prg
ps -elf | grep db.exe
The run() function that is used to run the shell command as specified in the alias command will capture output and display it in a text viewer. If you want to run the command and display the contents full screen, then specify true as the third parameter to the run().
run("command", true, true) 
The arguments to run() are as follows.
Argument Description
1 the command line to run
2 True if output should be displayed in a text area (default True)
3 True if the output should be displayed full screen (default False)
The alias command handles parameter substitition.
Macro Description
$0 the command line following the command name
$1..$n the arguments given to the command
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In this article Barry Mavin, CEO and Chief Software Architect for Recital, details how to use the Client Drivers provided with the Recital Database Server to work with local or remote server-side OLE DB data sources.


The Recital Universal .NET Data Provider provides connectivity to the Recital Database Server running on any supported platform (Windows, Linux, Unix, OpenVMS) using the RecitalConnection object.

The Recital Universal JDBC Driver provides the same functionality for java applications.

The Recital Universal ODBC Driver provides the same functionality for applications that use ODBC.

Each of the above Client Drivers use a connection string to describe connections parameters.

The basic format of a connection string consists of a series of keyword/value pairs separated by semicolons. The equal sign (=) connects each keyword and its value.

The following table lists the valid names for keyword/values.

Name Default Description

Data Source


  The name or network address of the instance of the Recital Database Server which to connect to.
Directory   The target directory on the remote server where data to be accessed resides. This is ignored when a Database is specified.


false When true, DES3 encryption is used for all data sent between the client and server.
Initial Catalog
  The name of the database on the remote server.
  The password used to authenticate access to the remote server.
User ID   The user name used to authenticate access to the remote server.

Connection Pooling

false Enable connection pooling to the server. This provides for one connection to be shared.
Logging false Provides for the ability to log all server requests for debugging purposes
Rowid true When Rowid is true (the default) a column will be post-fixed to each SELECT query that is a unique row identifier. This is used to provide optimised UPDATE and DELETE operations. If you use the RecitalSqlGrid, RecitalSqlForm, or RecitalSqlGridForm components then this column is not visible but is used to handle updates to the underlying data source.
Logfile   The name of the logfile for logging

Opens an SQL gateway(Connection) to a foreign SQL data source on the remote server.

Using Gateways, you can transparently access the following local or remote data sources:

  • Recital
  • Oracle
  • ODBC (Server-side ODBC data sources)
  • JDBC (Server-side JDBC data sources)
  • ADO (Use this to connect to SQL Server and other Native Windows OLEDB data sources)
  • MySQL
  • PostgreSQL

The gateway can be specified in several formats:










To connect to a server-side OLE DB data source, you use the gateway=value key/value pair in the following way.


When specifying the connection string be sure to quote the gateway= with "...".

You can find examples of connection strings for most ODBC and OLE DB data sources by clicking here.

Example in C# using the Recital Universal .NET Data Provider:
// include the references below
using System.Data;
using Recital.Data;
// The following code example creates an instance of a DataAdapter that 
// uses a Connection to the Recital Database Server, and a gateway to
// the SQL server Northwind database. It then populates a DataTable 
// in a DataSet with the list of customers. The SQL statement and 
// Connection arguments passed to the DataAdapter constructor are used 
// to create the SelectCommand property of the DataAdapter.
public DataSet SelectCustomers()
	string gateway = "oledb:Provider=sqloledb;Initial Catalog=Northwind;
		Data Source=localhost;Integrated Security=SSPI";
	RecitalConnection swindConn = new 
		RecitalConnection("Data Source=localhost;gateway=\""+gateway+"\");
	RecitalCommand selectCMD = new 
		RecitalCommand("SELECT CustomerID, CompanyName FROM Customers", swindConn);
	selectCMD.CommandTimeout = 30;
	RecitalDataAdapter custDA = new RecitalDataAdapter();
	custDA.SelectCommand = selectCMD;
	DataSet custDS = new DataSet();
	custDA.Fill(custDS, "Customers");
	return custDS;
Example in Java using the Recital Universal JDBC Driver:
// standard imports required by the JDBC driver
import java.sql.*;
import java.math.BigDecimal;
import Recital.sql.*;
// The following code example creates a Connection to the Recital 
// Database Server, and a gateway to the SQL server Northwind database. 
// It then retrieves all the customers.
public void SelectCustomers()
    // setup the Connection URL for JDBC
	String gateway = "oledb:Provider=sqloledb;Initial Catalog=Northwind;
		Data Source=localhost;Integrated Security=SSPI";
	String url = "jdbc:Recital:Data Source=localhost;gateway=\""+gateway+"\";
	// load the Recital Universal JDBC Driver
	new RecitalDriver();
	// create the connection
	Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(url);
	// create the statement
	Statement stmt = con.createStatement();
	// perform the SQL query
	ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT CustomerID, CompanyName FROM Customers");
	// fetch the data
	while ( 
		String CompanyID = rs.getString("CustomerID");
		String CompanyName = rs.getString("CompanyName");
		// do something with the data...
	// Release the statement
	// Disconnect from the server
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Recital 10 enhances the SQL optimizer. Now, production indexes with a FOR <conditions> will be used to optimize SQL SELECT statements. If a WHERE <condition> on a SELECT statement matches a FOR <condition> on an index tag, this index will be used to optimize the query. The WHERE <condition> must be an exact match with the  FOR <condition>.  For example;
USE accounts 
INDEX on account_no TAG outstanding FOR balance  > 0
EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM accounts WHERE balance  > 0
  Optimized using for condition on tag 'OUTSTANDING'
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RTOS( [ <workarea> ] )


The RTOS() function returns all the fields in the current row as a string. The string will begin with the unique row identifier and then the deleted flag, followed by the data in the record. An optional workarea can be specified, otherwise the current workarea will be used


use backup in 0
use accounts in 0
for i = 1 to nrecs
  if rtos(accounts) != rtos(backup)
     debug("record "+recno()+" don't match")

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When using Recital Web you can maintain the exact state of each cursor between pages like this.

On entry to the .rsp page.

IF type( _session["state"] ) != "U"
    m_state = _session["state"]
    // open up your tables for the first time 

On exit of the .rsp page.
_SESSION["state"] = m_state
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In this article Barry Mavin, CEO and Chief Software Architect for Recital, details how to work with Triggers in the Recital Database Server.


A trigger is a special kind of stored procedure that runs when you modify data in a specified table using one or more of the data modification operations: UPDATE, INSERT, or DELETE.

Triggers can query other tables and can include complex SQL statements. They are primarily useful for enforcing complex business rules or requirements. For example, you can control whether to allow a new order to be inserted based on a customer's current account status.

Triggers are also useful for enforcing referential and data integrity.

Triggers can be used with any data source that is handled natively by the Recital Database Engine. This includes Recital, FoxPro, FoxBASE, Clipper, dBase, CISAM, and RMS data,

Creating and Editing Triggers

To create a new Trigger,  right-click the Procedures node in the Databases tree of the Project Explorer and choose Create. To modify an existing Trigger select the Trigger in the Databases Tree in the Project Explorer by double-clicking on it, or select Modify from the context menu. By convertion we recommend that you name your Stored Procedures beginning with "sp_xxx_", user-defined functions with "f_xxx_", and Triggers with "dt_xxx_", where xxx is the name of the table that they are associated with.

Associating Triggers with a Table

Once you have written your Triggers as detailed above you can associate them with the operations performed on a Table by selecting the Table tab.

The Tables tab allows you to select a Trigger procedure by clicking on the small button at the right of the Text field.

Types of Triggers

As can be seen from the Tables tab detailed below, The Recital Database Server handles 6 distinct types of Triggers.

Open Trigger

The Open Trigger is called after is a table is opened but before any operations are performed on it. You can use this trigger to record a log of table usage or provide a programmable means of checing security. If the Trigger procedure returns .F. (false), then the table is not opened. You can use a TRY...CATCH block around the associated command to inform the user.

Close Trigger

The Close Trigger is called just prior to a table being closed. In this trigger you may find it useful to get transaction counts by using the IOSTATS() built-in 4GL function, and record these values in a transaction log.

Update Trigger

The Update Trigger is called prior to a record update operation being performed. You can use this trigger to perform complex application or data specific validation. If the Trigger procedure returns .F. (false), then the record is not updated. You can use inform the user from within the Trigger procedure the reason that the data cannot be updated.

Delete Trigger

The Delete Trigger is called prior to a record delete operation being performed. You can use this trigger to perform complex application or data specific validation such as cross-table lookups e.g. attempting to delete a customer recortd when there are still open orders for that specific customer. If the Trigger procedure returns .F. (false), then the record is not deleted.

Insert Trigger

The Insert Trigger is called prior to a record insert (append) operation being performed. You can use this trigger to perform such tasks as setting up default values of columns within the record. If the Trigger procedure returns .F. (false), then the record is not inserted.

Rollback Trigger

The RollbackTrigger is called prior to a rollback operation being performed from within a form. If the Trigger procedure returns .F. (false), then the record is not rolled back to its original state.

Testing the Trigger

To test run the Trigger, select the Trigger in the Databases Tree in the Project Explorer by double-clicking on it. Once the Database Administrator is displayed, click the Run button to run the Trigger.

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