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For Recital to run correctly on 64bit Linux you require the ia32 shared libraries.

The 64bit port of Recital requires these libraries to allow access to 32bit Xbase and C-ISAM data files which are 32bit.

If you do not have these libraries installed you will either get a "can't find db.exe" or an "error loading shared libraries" when trying to run or license Recital.

Installing the ia32 shared libraries

Redhat EL 5 / Centos 5 / Fedora 10

  1. Insert the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Supplementary CD, which contains the ia32el package.

  2. After the system has mounted the CD, change to the directory containing the Supplementary packages. For example:

    cd /media/cdrom/Supplementary/

  3. Install the ia32el package:

    rpm -Uvh ia32el-<version>.ia64.rpm

Alternatively: Note you must have the required repo's enabled.
 yum install ia32el

Ubuntu / Debian

sudo apt-get install ia32-libs

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The Komodo Editor is a free project based editor that runs on the mac, linux and windows. It color codes and handles auto completion for lots of languages (including Recital/PHP/Perl/C etc). You can download it free from here.
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Awk is an powerful text processing language that allows you to manipulate files containing columns of data and strings. Awk is extremely useful, both for general operation of Unix commands, and for data transformation.
Introduced in Recital 10 is the PIPETOSTR() function (as well as backticks `` inside strings) which can be used  in conjunction with awk to transform recital data.
The following links provide good tutorials on awk:
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DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device) forms the storage redundancy portition of a HA cluster setup. Explained in basic terms DRBD provides a means of achieving RAID 1 behavoir over a network, where whole block devices are mirrored accross the network.

To start off you will need 2 indentically sized raw drives or partitions. Many how-to's on the internet assume the use of whole drives, of course this will be better performance, but if you are simply getting familar with the technology you can repartition existing drives to allow for two eqaully sized raw partitions, one on each of the systems you will be using.

There are 3 DRBD replication modes:
• Protocol A: Write I/O is reported as completed as soon as it reached local disk and local TCP send buffer
• Protocol B: Write I/O is reported as completed as soon as it reached local disk and remote TCP buffer cache
• Protocol C: Write I/O is reported as completed as soon as it reached both local and remote disks.

If we were installing the HA cluster on a slow LAN or if the geogrphical seperation of the systems involved was great, then I recommend you opt for asyncronous mirroring (Protocol A) where the notifcation of a completed write operation occurs as soon as the local disk write is performed. This will greatly improve performance.

As we are setting up our HA cluster connected via a fast LAN, we will be using DRBD in fully syncronous mode, protocol C.
Protocol C involves the file system on the active node only being notified that the write operation was finished when the block is written to both disks of the cluster. Protocol C is the most commonly used mode of DRBD.


global { usage-count yes; }
common { syncer { rate 10M; } }
resource r0 {
protocol C;
net {
max-buffers 2048;
ko-count 4;
on bailey {
device    /dev/drbd0;
disk      /dev/sda4;
meta-disk internal;
on giskard {
device    /dev/drbd0;
disk      /dev/sda3;
meta-disk internal;

drbd.conf explained:

Global section, usage-count. The DRBD project keeps statistics about the usage of DRBD versions. They do this by contacting a HTTP server each time a new DRBD version is installed on a system. This can be disabled by setting usage-count no;.

The common seciton contains configurations inhereted by all resources defined.
Setting the syncronisation rate, this is accoimplished by going to the syncer section and then assigning a value to the rate setting. The syncronisation rate refers to rate in which the data is being mirrored in the background. The best setting for the syncronsation rate is related to the speed of the network with which the DRBD systems are communicating on. 100Mbps ethernet supports around 12MBps, Giggabit ethernet somewhere around 125MBps.

in the configuration above, we have a resource defined as r0, the nodes are configured in the "on" host subsections.
"Device" configures the path of the logical block device that will be created by DRBD
"Disk" configures the block device that will be used to store the data.
"Address" configures the IP address and port number of the host that will hold this DRBD device.
"Meta-disk" configures the location where the metadata about the DRBD device will be stored.
You can set this to internal and DRBD will use the physical block device to store the information, by recording the metadata within the last sections of the disk.
Once you have created your configuration file, you must conduct the following steps on both the nodes.

Create device metadata.

$ drbdadm create-md r0
v08 Magic number not found
Writing meta data...
initialising activity log
NOT initialized bitmap
New drbd meta data block sucessfully created.

Attach the backing device.
$ drbdadm attach r0

Set the syncronisation parameters.
$ drbdadm syncer r0

Connect it to the peer.
$ drbdadm connect r0

Run the service.
$ service drbd start


Heartbeat provides the IP redundancy and the service HA functionailty.
On the failure of the primary node the VIP is assigned to the secondary node and the services configured to be HA are started on the secondary node.

Heartbeat configuration:


## /etc/ha.d/ on node1
## This configuration is to be the same on both machines
## This example is made for version 2, comment out crm if using version 1
// replace the node variables with the names of your nodes.

crm no
keepalive 1
deadtime 5
warntime 3
initdead 20
bcast eth0
auto_failback yes
node bailey
node giskard

// The configuration below set authentication off, and encryption off for the authentication of nodes and their packets.
//Note make sure the authkeys file has the correct permisisions chmod 600

## /etc/ha.d/authkeys
auth 1
1 crc

// is the VIP (Virtual IP) assigned to the cluster.
//the "smb" in the configuration line represents the service we wish to make HA
// /devdrbd0 represents the resource name you configured in the drbd.conf

## /etc/ha.d/haresources
## This configuration is to be the same on both nodes

bailey drbddisk Filesystem::/dev/drbd0::/drbdData::ext3 smb

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In this article Barry Mavin explains step by step how to setup a Linux HA (High Availability) cluster for the running of Recital applications on Redhat/Centos 5.3 although the general configuration should work for other linux versions with a few minor changes.

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lslk lists information about locks held on files with local inodes on systems running linux.

Install it with:

yum install lslk
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One of the attractive features of Linux is the impressive 3D desktop that even works on most older hardware.

You can enabled the 3D Desktop on CentOS5 by installing the compiz package:

yum install compiz 

After you have done this, go to the top panel and click System, then select Preferences > and click 'Desktop Effects.

You will get a new dialog. To test and see if your hardware supports the 3D Desktop, press the button Enable Desktop Effects. If everything works fine, you can select Keep Settings.

Then test your 3D Desktop by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Left and Ctrl-Alt-Right, or drag a window around or even out of the screen to the left or right. If you maximize a window, you will see another cool effect. If you move the mouse to the upper-right corner of the screen you see all your opened applications.

Way cool!
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In this article Barry Mavin, CEO and Chief Software Architect for Recital, details on how to use the Client Drivers provided with the Recital Database Server to work with local or remote server-side JDBC data sources.


The Recital Universal .NET Data Provider provides connectivity to the Recital Database Server running on any supported platform (Windows, Linux, Unix, OpenVMS) using the RecitalConnection object.

The Recital Universal JDBC Driver provides the same functionality for java applications.

The Recital Universal ODBC Driver provides the same functionality for applications that use ODBC.

Each of the above Client Drivers use a connection string to describe connections parameters.

The basic format of a connection string consists of a series of keyword/value pairs separated by semicolons. The equals sign (=) connects each keyword and its value.

The following table lists the valid names for keyword/values.

Name Default Description

Data Source

  The name or network address of the instance of the Recital Database Server which to connect to.
Directory   The target directory on the remote server where data to be accessed resides. This is ignored when a Database is specified.


false When true, DES3 encryption is used for all data sent between the client and server.
Initial Catalog
  The name of the database on the remote server.
  The password used to authenticate access to the remote server.
User ID   The user name used to authenticate access to the remote server.

Connection Pooling

false Enable connection pooling to the server. This provides for one connection to be shared.
Logging false Provides for the ability to log all server requests for debugging purposes
Rowid true When Rowid is true (the default) a column will be post-fixed to each SELECT query that is a unique row identifier. This is used to provide optimised UPDATE and DELETE operations. If you use the RecitalSqlGrid, RecitalSqlForm, or RecitalSqlGridForm components then this column is not visible but is used to handle updates to the underlying data source.
Logfile   The name of the logfile for logging

Opens an SQL gateway(Connection) to a foreign SQL data source on the remote server.
Using Gateways, you can transparently access the following local or remote data sources:

  • Recital
  • Oracle
  • ODBC (Server-side ODBC data sources)
  • JDBC (Server-side JDBC data sources)
  • ADO (Use this to connect to SQL Server and other Native Windows OLEDB data sources)
  • MySQL
  • PostgreSQL
The gateway can be specified in several formats:

To connect to a server-side JDBC data source, you ue the gateway=value key/value pair in the following way.


You can find examples of connection strings for most ODBC and OLE DB data sources by clicking here.

Example in C# using the Recital Universal .NET Data Provider:
// include the references below
using System.Data;
using Recital.Data;

// The following code example creates an instance of a DataAdapter that 
// uses a Connection to the Recital Database Server, and a gateway to
// Recital Southwind database. It then populates a DataTable 
// in a DataSet with the list of customers via the JDBC driver. 
// The SQL statement and Connection arguments passed to the DataAdapter 
// constructor are used to create the SelectCommand property of the
// DataAdapter.
public DataSet SelectCustomers()
	string gateway = "jdbc:/usr/java/lib/RecitalJDBC/Recital/sql/RecitalDriver;"+
			"jdbc:Recital:Data Source=localhost;database=southwind";       
	RecitalConnection swindConn = new
			RecitalConnection("Data Source=localhost;gateway=\""+gateway+"\");
	RecitalCommand selectCMD = new
			RecitalCommand("SELECT CustomerID, CompanyName FROM Customers", swindConn);
	selectCMD.CommandTimeout = 30;
	RecitalDataAdapter custDA = new RecitalDataAdapter();    
	custDA.SelectCommand = selectCMD;    
	DataSet custDS = new DataSet();
	custDA.Fill(custDS, "Customers");    
	return custDS;
Example in Java using the Recital Universal JDBC Driver:
// standard imports required by the JDBC driver
import java.sql.*;
import java.math.BigDecimal;
import Recital.sql.*;

// The following code example creates a Connection to the Recital // Database Server, and a gateway to the Recital Southwind database. // It then retrieves all the customers via the JDBC driver. public void SelectCustomers() { // setup the Connection URL for JDBC String gateway = "jdbc:/usr/java/lib/RecitalJDBC/Recital/sql/RecitalDriver;"+ "jdbc:Recital:Data Source=localhost;database=southwind"; String url = "jdbc:Recital:Data Source=localhost;gateway=\""+gateway+"\";
// load the Recital Universal JDBC Driver new RecitalDriver(); // create the connection Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(url); // create the statement Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); // perform the SQL query ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT CustomerID, CompanyName FROM Customers"); // fetch the data while ( { String CompanyID = rs.getString("CustomerID"); String CompanyName = rs.getString("CompanyName"); // do something with the data... } // Release the statement stmt.close(); // Disconnect from the server con.close(); }
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Recital 10 enhances the SQL optimizer. Now, production indexes with a FOR <conditions> will be used to optimize SQL SELECT statements. If a WHERE <condition> on a SELECT statement matches a FOR <condition> on an index tag, this index will be used to optimize the query. The WHERE <condition> must be an exact match with the  FOR <condition>.  For example;
USE accounts 
INDEX on account_no TAG outstanding FOR balance  > 0
EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM accounts WHERE balance  > 0
  Optimized using for condition on tag 'OUTSTANDING'
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