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When stress testing our loadbalancer, i was unable to get more than 20 reliable ssh connections. The following error would be reported.

ssh_exchange_identification: Connection closed by remote host

The resolution for this is quite simple.

Edit the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file and increase the MaxStartups. On my server i set this to 200.

Edit /etc/sysctrl.conf and add the following line:

net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 3000

Then apply this change:

# sysctl -p

 

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This article looks at After Image Journaling and audit trails in Recital using SET JOURNAL and associated commands.

Overview

After Image Journaling, used in conjunction with a structured backup policy is an effective disaster recovery solution. Any transaction that takes place on a table that is being journaled is logged in the journal file. In the event of a disk crash or similar event in which the table is lost, the journaled transactions can be reapplied to the latest backup copy of the table. Alternatively or additionally, the journal can be used to provide an audit trail to all modifications made to the table data.

NOTE: Recital also provides Before Image Journaling via BEGIN TRANSACTION / END TRANSACTION blocks, allowing unsuccessful transactions to be rolled back to a set saved state.

SET JOURNAL and RECOVER

Regular backups are an essential routine for any system, but in high-transaction environments restoration of the latest backup can still mean a major loss of data. After image journaling can successfully be used as part of your disaster recovery strategy to minimize data loss and down time. Recital after image journaling functionality is based on the use of the SET JOURNAL and RECOVER commands.

SET JOURNAL
SET JOURNAL TO [<.dbj filename> | ()]
SET JOURNAL ON | OFF | ()

The SET JOURNAL command is used to enable the After Image Journaling and audit trail for the active table. The TO <.dbj filename> clause associates the specified transaction journal file with the active table.  If the journal file does not exist, it will be created.  The filename can be substituted with a <expC>, enclosed in round brackets, which returns a valid filename.  If no file extension is specified, ‘.dbj’ is used. When specifying a journal file, it is recommended that the journal file is stored on a different disk than that which the table is stored on, so that if a fatal disk error occurs, then the journal file will not be lost along with the table. 

//Enable journaling for the southwind!orders table
open database southwind
use orders
set journal to /journals/ord_journ

The <.dbj filename> is a standard table.  It contains seven fields that are specific to a journal file, followed by the first 249 fields of the associated table.

The first seven fields in the journal are:


Field

Type

Display

Storage

Description

AUD_DATE

Date

8 | 10 *

4

The date on which the transaction was performed.

AUD_TIME

Character

8

8

 The time at which the transaction was performed, in the format HH:MM:SS.

AUD_TERM

Character

12

12

The name of the terminal from which the transaction was performed

AUD_UID

Short

5

2

The ID of the user who performed the transaction.

AUD_GID

Short

5

2

The group ID of the user who performed the transaction.

AUD_CMD

Short

4

2

The command number of the transaction performed from the command table below

AUD_RECNO

Integer

7

4

The record number in the associated table which the transaction was performed on.


* Dependent on SET CENTURY setting.

The AUD_CMD Command Reference Numbers are as follows:


Command

Number

DELETE

14

RECALL

36

REPLACE

41

BROWSE

6

CHANGE

8

EDIT

17

INSERT

26

APPEND

5

READ

35


Since journal files are standard Recital tables, you can use standard Recital commands such as the REPORT command to print audit trails, transaction logs, etc.

//Enable journaling for the southwind!orders table
open database southwind
use orders
set journal to /journals/ord_journ
//.. transactions
close data
//View journaled records
use /journals/ord_journ.dbj

Click image to display full size

Fig 1: Journal Record Example.

The SET JOURNAL TO command without a <.dbj filename> specified closes the active journal file and no further journaling will take place on the active table until the SET JOURNAL TO <.dbj filename> is reissued.

The journaling features are mainly used with shared tables.  It should be noted that there is an overhead in enabling transaction journaling, as records updated in a table are also written to the journal file. When records are appended into a journal file, locking is automatically performed so that multiple users can update the journal concurrently.  The associated table must be opened shareable for this to occur.  Each table can have a journal file associated with it. 

The SET JOURNAL ON | OFF command enables or disables transaction journaling.  This command is primarily used in applications where journaling can be disabled for a certain class of operations. By default, SET JOURNAL is ON, but no journal files are set.

NOTE: Only the first 249 fields of a table can be journaled: subsequent fields are ignored. The maximum number of fields in a Recital table is 256.

RECOVER
RECOVER FROM <.dbj filename> | ()

The RECOVER command uses the journal file to reapply lost transactions to a previous backup of the data after a fatal error such as a disk head crash. The FROM clause specifies the journal file to use. The file name can be substituted with an <expC>, enclosed in round brackets, which returns a valid filename.  If no file extension is specified, then ‘.dbj’ is assumed. 

Regular backups are essential to the successful use of After Image Journaling.   It is also very important to reinitialize the journal file after each backup: either open the journal file as you would a normal table and use the ZAP command, or delete the file completely. If a fatal error occurs, such as a disk head crash, the table and index files must be restored from a backup, then the RECOVER command executed. RECOVER will reapply' all of the transactions in the journal file to the table, and update the indexes.  After the RECOVER command has completed, you can continue with normal processing. 

//Create a backup of the southwind!orders table
//...backup table and associated files
//Reinitialize the journal file
erase /journals/ord_journ.dbj
//Enable journaling for the southwind!orders table
open database southwind
use orders
set journal to /journals/ord_journ
//.. transactions
//Restore the backup of the southwind!orders table
//...restore
//Open the restored backup
open database southwind
use orders
//Reapply the transactions using the journal
recover from /journals/ord_journ.dbj
//Now, enable the journal file again or
//restart with a new backup

Journaling Memo Fields

By default, memo fields - variable length text fields - are not journaled due to the possible storage overhead of multiple copies of potentially large blocks of text. But, if memo journaling is required, the SET MEMOJOURNAL ON command can be used to enable this.

SET MEMOJOURNAL
SET MEMOJOURNAL ON | OFF | ()

The SET MEMOJOURNAL command causes memo fields to be journaled when journaling is set on a table. This command allows the optional logical expression <expL> to be evaluated.  If a value of  .T. is returned, MEMOJOURNAL is set ON.  If a value of .F. is returned, MEMOJOURNAL is set OFF.  By default SET MEMOJOURNAL is OFF.

Like a normal Recital table, the journal holds only a pointer to a data block in an associated memo file, not the actual memo data itself. The journal's memo file has a file extension of .dbm rather than the standard Recital .dbt. Therefore, if the journal is being opened as a table, in order to view the journal's memo data, the SET MEMOEXT command should be used.

//Enable journaling for the southwind!suppliers table
open database southwind
use suppliers
set journal to /journals/sup_journ
//.. transactions
close data
//Set filename extension for memo file
set memoext to '.dbm'
//View journaled records
use /journals/sup_journ.dbj

Summary

The After Image Journaling enabled by the SET JOURNAL and RECOVER commands can be used in conjunction with a strict backup regime to minimize data loss in cases where tables become damaged or irretrievable. Journal files can be accessed like standard Recital tables and provide detailed information about the transactions applied to a table, so can be used for auditing purposes.

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I was fascinated to learn that marvel are shipping a complete linux device that runs on a wall plug for less than $100. The device has gigabit ethernet and USB connectivity making it ideal for building home security and surveillance devices that can be connected together. 

This would be an ideal device for Recital Embedded. Details can be found here. Additional information can be found here and this article in Scientific American 8 Big Things to Do with a Mini Server.

Seeing as this device runs linux, nomachine can be installed on it.  

Clearly this device has a lot of uses including acting as a loadbalancer and also as a bunch of loadbalanced application servers that access data on a network using glusterfs or samba. Another great use of this device would to configure it as a rsnapshot server to backup all the machines in your home! Interestingly in quantity the device is only US$50.

Marvell have a development wiki here.
{linkr:none}
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RTOS()

Syntax

RTOS( [ <workarea> ] )

Description

The RTOS() function returns all the fields in the current row as a string. The string will begin with the unique row identifier and then the deleted flag, followed by the data in the record. An optional workarea can be specified, otherwise the current workarea will be used

Example

use backup in 0
use accounts in 0
nrecs=reccount()
for i = 1 to nrecs
  if rtos(accounts) != rtos(backup)
     debug("record "+recno()+" don't match")
  endif
next

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In Recital 10, you can declare anonymous classes and call anonymous methods in these classes.
// declare some simple procedures 
proc display(cArg)
    echo "display=" + cArg
endproc

proc show(cArg)
    echo "show=" + cArg
endproc

// create an object based on an anonymous class
myobj = new object()

// add some properties
myobj["name"] = "barry"
myobj["company"] = "recital"

// now declare an anonymous method
myobj["mymethod"] = display

// call the method
myobj.mymethod("hello world")    // displays "display=hello world"

// redeclare the method
myobj["mymethod"] = show

// call the method
myobj.mymethod("hello world")    // displays "show=hello world"
Where this becomes particularly useful is when you have a procedure that calls anonymous methods in order to process data. This technique can be used to call anonymous procedures in your code.
proc processdata(oArg)
    oArg.mymethod(oArg.name)    
endproc

proc show(cArg)
    echo "show=" + cArg
endproc

myobj = new object()
myobj["name"] = "barry"
myobj["mymethod"] = show
processdata(myobj)        // displays "show=barry"
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In Linux you can run lsof and pipe it though grep for the files you are interested in, for example;
$ lsof | grep db.exe | grep accounts
db.exe    16897      john    6uw     REG      253,0    20012    3413872 /usr/recital100/qa/accounts.dbf
db.exe    16897      john    7u      REG      253,0     4176    3413885 /usr/recital100/qa/accounts.dbx
If you want to check for locks you can use lslk, for example;
$ lslk | grep db.exe | grep accounts
db.exe    16897 253,0 3413872 20012  w 0  0  0 12319   0 /usr/recital100/qa/accounts.dbf
If you don't have lslk installed you can install it with one of the updaters, for example on redhat linux:
$ yum update lslk

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Platforms supported

  • Intel® / AMD™ 32 bit Linux
  • Intel® / AMD™ 64 bit Linux
  • HP PA-RISC HP-UX® 10.20 and above
  • Sun® SPARC Solaris™ 8 and above
  • HP Alpha OpenVMS 7.2-1 and above
  • SCO® OpenServer 5.0.5 and above
  • Sun® Intel® Solaris™ 10 and above
  • IBM AIX® 4.3 and above
  • HP Integrity OpenVMS 8.2-1 and above
  • HP Intel® Itanium® HP-UX® 11.23 and above
  • Mac OS X leopard 10.5 and above

Large File Support is available for Windows, Itanium HP-UX and Linux. 
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Recital on Linux 64 bit requires certain 32 bit libraries for installation and/or operation.  It also needs to be installed and configured as the root user, or using sudo for those systems without a root login.

For systems that do not have the xterm libraries installed, please install these to use xterm, or set the DB_TERM environment variable to start Recital from a terminal:
DB_TERM=gnome-terminal; export DB_TERM

This setting can be added to the /opt/recital/conf/recital.conf (text) file to make it available system-wide.

Please note that the Recital ODBC Driver for Linux requires a 32 bit ODBC Driver Manager.

Centos 6:

sudo yum install zlib-devel.i686 pam-devel.i686
(and accept dependencies)
Then run the installer in text mode
sudo ./recital-10.0.3-linux32.bin --mode text
Run Recital with sudo the first time, to set the system filetype compatiblity settings.
sudo recital
After saving the compatibility settings, quit to exit, then run Recital as your preferred user.
> quit
$ recital

RedHat / Fedora family:

sudo yum install zlib-devel.i686 pam.i686
(and accept dependencies)
Then run the installer in text mode
sudo ./recital-10.0.3-linux32.bin --mode text
Run Recital with sudo the first time, to set the system filetype compatiblity settings.
sudo recital
After saving the compatibility settings, quit to exit, then run Recital as your preferred user.
> quit
$ recital

 Ubuntu family:

sudo apt-get install ia32-libs 
In later versions of Ubuntu, ia32-libs is obsolete. The following package should be installed:
sudo apt-get install lib32z1
Ubuntu 12.04 and above also require the following:
sudo apt-get install libpam0g:i386
Then run the installer in text mode
sudo ./recital-10.0.3-linux32.bin --mode text
Run Recital with sudo the first time, to set the system filetype compatiblity settings.
sudo recital
After saving the compatibility settings, quit to exit, then run Recital as your preferred user.
> quit
$ recital

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We are pleased to announce the release of Recital 10.0.3.

Here is a brief list of features and functionality that you will find in the 10.0.3 release.

  • New Commands:
    - SET TMPNAMPATH ON|OFF
    - REMOVE TABLE
  • New Functions:
    - CURSORGETPROP()
    - CURSORSETPROP()
    - CURVAL()
    - GETFLDSTATE()
    - OLDVAL()
    - TABLEREVERT()
    - TABLEUPDATE()
    - SETFLDSTATE()
  • Enhanced Functions:
    - TMPNAM() - additional parameter to specify the return of basename only
    - MAILATTACH() - parameter changed from array to filename to allow directory and file extension to be specified
  • Enhancements:
    - DO level increased from 32 to 64.
  • Fixes:
    - Delay exiting Recital after SYS(3) or SYS(2015)
    - SET SOFTSEEK issue when search key above first record in index
    - Compilation error with REPLACE command after UDF call
    - FETCH INTO memvars error
    - END TRANSACTION at command prompt error
    - ROLLBACK locking error
    - Linux ODBC Driver undefined symbol error
    - RELEASE variable with same name as variable in calling program issue
    - SQLCODE() issue on non-gateway data access
    - Issuing two SQLEXEC() calls error
    - LASTSEQNO() in workareas > 1 error
    - SET RELATION to detail table in workarea 1 issue
    - LIST STATUS on empty table delay
    - SET AUTOCATALOG alias entries error
    - ADD OBJECT in DEFINE CLASS error
    - DEACTIVATE WINDOW error
    - SORT error
    - Other reported bugs
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Subclipse is an Eclipse Team Provider plug-in providing support for Subversion within the Eclipse IDE. This plugin is required in order to use the recital eclipse workspace.
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