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One of the attractive features of Linux is the impressive 3D desktop that even works on most older hardware.

You can enabled the 3D Desktop on CentOS5 by installing the compiz package:

yum install compiz 

After you have done this, go to the top panel and click System, then select Preferences > and click 'Desktop Effects.

You will get a new dialog. To test and see if your hardware supports the 3D Desktop, press the button Enable Desktop Effects. If everything works fine, you can select Keep Settings.

Then test your 3D Desktop by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Left and Ctrl-Alt-Right, or drag a window around or even out of the screen to the left or right. If you maximize a window, you will see another cool effect. If you move the mouse to the upper-right corner of the screen you see all your opened applications.

Way cool!
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The PHP ODBC functions can be used to access Recital data via the Recital Universal ODBC Driver.

The following example connects to a Recital ODBC datasource, executes a query then outputs all the results from the resultset.

$sql = "select country from customers limit 10";
$conn = odbc_connect('Recital ODBC test', '?', '?');
$rs = odbc_exec($conn, $sql);


<tr><td>Germany        </td></tr>
<tr><td>Mexico         </td></tr>
<tr><td>Mexico         </td></tr>
<tr><td>UK             </td></tr>
<tr><td>Sweden         </td></tr>
<tr><td>Germany        </td></tr>
<tr><td>France         </td></tr>
<tr><td>Spain          </td></tr>
<tr><td>France         </td></tr>
<tr><td>Canada         </td></tr>

For information on installing and configuring the Recital Universal ODBC Driver and creating and modifying datasources, please see the Documentation section of this web site.

Note: Use of ? for the username and password on the local server is dependent on DB_LOCAL_LOGIN being enabled.

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lslk lists information about locks held on files with local inodes on systems running linux.

Install it with:

yum install lslk
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Recital 10 introduced the DIE( )and EXIT( ) functions. These functions operates in the same way as the PHP DIE( ) and EXIT( ) functions. They output a message and terminate the current session in both Recital and Recital Web.
  open database southwind
  die("Cannot open database, please try later.")
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This article looks at the range of client access mechanisms for Windows that can be used with the Recital C-ISAM Bridge and details bridge configuration and usage.


Just because the format of data is regarded as 'legacy' does not make that data in any way obsolete. Modern client interfaces can not only extend the life of long-term data, but also provide different ways to analyse and gain advantage from that data.

Recital Corporation provides a range of solutions to interface to Informix compliant C-ISAM data on Linux or UNIX from Windows clients.


Click image to display full size

Fig 1: Recital Mirage .NET application accessing the C-ISAM Demo table.

Recital offers two alternative ways to access C-ISAM data using Microsoft .NET:

The Recital .NET Data Provider is a managed Data Provider written in C# that provides full compatibility with the Microsoft SQLserver and OLE DB data providers that ship with the .NET framework. It is fully integrated with the Visual Studio .NET IDE supporting data binding and automatic code generation using the form designer. The Recital .NET Data Provider works in conjunction with the Recital Database Server for Linux or UNIX to access C-ISAM data.

Recital Mirage .NET is a complete solution for migrating, developing and deploying 4GL database applications. Recital Mirage .NET works in conjunction with the Recital Mirage .NET Application Server for Linux or UNIX to access C-ISAM data.


Click image to display full size

Fig 2: Java™ Swing JTable accessing the C-ISAM Demo table via the Recital JDBC Driver.

The Recital JDBC Driver is an all Java Type 4 JDBC 3.0 Driver, allowing you to access C-ISAM data from Java applets and applications. The Recital JDBC Driver works in conjunction with the Recital Database Server for Linux or UNIX to access C-ISAM data.


Click image to display full size

Fig 3: Microsoft® Office Excel 2003 Pivot Chart and Pivot Table accessing the C-ISAM Demo table via the Recital ODBC Driver.

The Recital ODBC Driver is an ODBC 3.0 Driver, allowing you to access C-ISAM data from your preferred ODBC based Windows applications. You can develop your own applications in languages such as C++ or Visual Basic, manipulate the data in a spreadsheet package or word processor document and design charts, graphs and reports. The Recital ODBC Driver works in conjunction with the Recital Database Server for Linux or UNIX to access C-ISAM data.

Configuring the Recital C-ISAM Bridge

Data access is achieved through a C-ISAM Bridge.  This requires the creation of an empty Recital table that has the same structure as the C-ISAM file and of a RecitalC-ISAM Bridge file.

On Linux and UNIX, Recital Terminal Developer and the Recital Database Server come complete with an example C-ISAM data file, C-ISAM index and Recital C-ISAM bridge that can be used for testing and as a template for configuring your own C-ISAM bridges.  The Recital Database Server also includes a bridge creation ini file.

Step 1:

Create a Recital table with the same structure as the C-ISAM file.  The fields/columns in the structure file must exactly match the data type and length of those in the C-ISAM file.  The Recital table will have one byte more in total record length due to the Recital record deletion marker.

To create the table, use the SQL CREATE TABLE command or the Recital Terminal Developer CREATE worksurface.  The SQL CREATE TABLE command can be called directly:

  In:      hstmt = 0x00761BE8,
    szSqlStr = "CREATE TABLE cisamdemo.str (DD Char(4)
              DESCRIPTION "Dd...", cbSqlStr = -3
  Return:  SQL_SUCCESS=0

or be included in a 4GL program:

// createtab.prg
CREATE TABLE cisamdemo.str;
    (DD Char(4) DESCRIPTION "Dd",;
     CONFIRM Char(6) DESCRIPTION "Confirm",;
     PROCDATE Char(6) DESCRIPTION "Procdate",;
     CONTROL Char(5) DESCRIPTION "Control",;
     DOLLARS Decimal(13,2) DESCRIPTION "Dollars",;
     DEALER Char(5) DESCRIPTION "Dealer",;
     TERRITORY Char(2) DESCRIPTION "Territory",;
     WOREP Char(12) DESCRIPTION "Worep",;
     CURRTRAN Char(3) DESCRIPTION "Currtran",;
     TRADDATE Char(6) DESCRIPTION "Traddate",;
     CITY Char(10) DESCRIPTION "City",;
     ACCOUNT Char(11) DESCRIPTION "Account",;
     PRETRAN Char(2) DESCRIPTION "Pretran",;
     AFSREP Char(14) DESCRIPTION "Afsrep",;
     REPKEY Char(9) DESCRIPTION "Repkey",;
     BRANCH Char(3) DESCRIPTION "Branch",;
     WODEALER Char(5) DESCRIPTION "Wodealer",;
     BANKCODE Char(2) DESCRIPTION "Bankcode",;
     COMMRATE Decimal(6,4) DESCRIPTION "Commrate",;
     NEWREP Char(1) DESCRIPTION "Newrep",;
     SETTLE Char(1) DESCRIPTION "Settle",;
     POSTDATE Char(6) DESCRIPTION "Postdate")
if file("cisamdemo.str")
    return .T.
    return .F.
// end of createtab.prg

Server-side 4GL programs can be called by all clients, e.g. from a Java class with a JDBC connection:

//-- --
import java.sql.*;
import Recital.sql.*;

public class create_str {

  public static void main(String argv[]) {
    try {
      new RecitalDriver();
      String url = "jdbc:Recital:" +
        "SERVERNAME=cisamserver;" +
        "DIRECTORY=/usr/recital/data/southwind;" +
        "USERNAME=user;" +
      Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(url, "user", "pass");
      Statement stmt = con.createStatement();

      CallableStatement sp = con.prepareCall("{call createtab}");
      boolean res = sp.execute();
      String outParam = sp.getString(1);
      System.out.println("Returned "+outParam);
    } catch (Exception e) {
      DriverManager.println("Driver exception: " + e.getMessage());
    try {
      System.out.println("Press any key to continue...");;
    } catch(IOException ie) {

The table should be given a ‘.str’ file extension (rather than the default ‘.dbf’) to signify that this is a structure file only.

Please see the end of this article for information on matching Informix and Recital data types

Fig 4: Recital CREATE/MODIFY STRUCTURE worksurface for character mode table creation.

Step 2: Creating the Bridge File

If you have Recital installed on the server platform, the Bridge File can be created using the CREATE BRIDGE worksurface.  The corresponding command to modify the bridge file is MODIFY BRIDGE <bridge file>.  This is the cisamdemo.dbf bridge file in the CREATE/MODIFY BRIDGE WORKSURFACE:

> modify bridge cisamdemo.dbf

Fig 5: Recital CREATE BRIDGE/MODIFY BRIDGE worksurface for bridge creation.

For Recital Database Server clients, the Bridge File can be created using the Recital/SQL CREATE BRIDGE command:

CREATE BRIDGE cisamdemo.dbf;
  EXTERNAL "cisamdemo.dat";
  METADATA "cisamdemo.str";
  ALIAS "cisamdemo"


CREATE BRIDGE cisamdemo.dbf;
  AS "type=CISAM;external=cisamdemo.dat;metadata=cisamdemo.str;alias=cisamdemo"

The examples above assume that the C-ISAM file, the bridge file and the Recital structure file are all in the current working directory.  Full path information can be specified for the <externalname> and the <databasename>.  For added flexibility, environment variables can be used to determine the path at the time the bridge is opened.  Environment variables can be included for either or both the <externalname> and the <databasename>.  A colon should be specified between the environment variable and the file name.


  CREATE BRIDGE cisamdemo.dbf;
  EXTERNAL "DB_DATADIR:cisamdemo";
  METADATA "DB_MIRAGE_PATH:cisamdemo.str";
  ALIAS "cisamdemo"

Fig 6: Recital CREATE BRIDGE/MODIFY BRIDGE worksurface - using environment variables.

Using the Bridge

The Bridge can now be used.  To access the C-ISAM file, use the ‘alias’ specified in the Bridge definition.

SELECT * FROM cisamdemo
use cisamdemo


The cisamdemo.dat file included in the Recital distributions for Linux and UNIX has three associated index keys in the cisamdemo.idx file:

Select area: 1
Database in use: cisamdemo
Alias: cisamdemo
Number of records: 4
Current record: 2
File Type: CISAM (C-ISAM)
Master Index: [cisamdemo.idx key #1]
Type: Character
Len: 21   (Unique)
Index: [cisamdemo.idx key #2]
Key: DD+SUBSTR(CONFIRM,2,5)+TRADDATE+STR(DOLLARS,13,2) +CURRTRAN+ACCOUNT Type: Character Len: 42 Index: [cisamdemo.idx key #3] Key: DEALER+BRANCH+AFSREP+SUBSTR(PROCDATE,5,2) +SUBSTR(CONTROL,2,4) Type: Character Len: 28

The Recital C-ISAM bridge makes full use of the C-ISAM indexes.  SQL SELECT statements with WHERE clauses are optimized based on any of the existing indexes when possible.  The following ODBC SELECT call makes use of key #3 rather than sequentially searching through the data file.

  In:      hstmt = 0x00761BE8,
    szSqlStr = "select * from cisamdemo
      where dealer+branch+afsrep=' 00161   595-7912",
      cbSqlStr = -3
  Return:  SQL_SUCCESS=0

Get Data All:


"0159", " 15522", "930312", "13356", 4992.60, "00161", "19", 
"", "210", "930305", "", "70000100009", "", "595-7912", 
"930315791", "", "", "59", 0.0000, "1", "", "930315"
1 row fetched from 22 columns.

Using the Recital/4GL, the primary index is set as the master index when the bridge is first opened.  Any secondary indexes can be selected using the SET ORDER TO <expN> command.  The Recital/4GL SEEK or FIND commands and SEEK() function can be used to search in the current master index.

Master index: [cisamdemo.idx key #3]
> SEEK “00161   595-7912”

Appendix 1: Data Types















Double Precision




16 Bit Integer






32 Bit Long
















Appendix 2: C-ISAM RDD Error Messages

The following errors relate to the use of the Recital CISAM Replaceable Database Driver (RDD).  They can be received as an ‘errno <expN>’ on Recital error messages:


Error Description


Duplicate record


File not open


Invalid argument


Invalid key description


Out of file descriptors


Invalid ISAM file format


Exclusive lock required


Record claimed by another user


Key already exists


Primary key may not be used


Beginning or end of file reached


No match was found


There is no “current” established


Entire file locked by another user


File name too long


Cannot create lock file


Memory allocation request failed


Bad custom collating


Duplicate primary key allowed


Invalid transaction identifier


Exclusively locked in a transaction


Internal error in journaling


Object not locked

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The Recital Oracle Gateway requires the Oracle shared library.  If this file is unknown to, add it using the ldconfig command. 
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We may update this policy. We will contact you if we make any substantial changes in how we use your personal information.

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Published in Blogs
The Recital Universal ODBC Driver is a 32 bit implementation, so is not listed in the 64 bit ODBC Data Source Administrator, which is the default administrator accessed from Control Panel | Administration Tools.

So, to create and configure Recital ODBC datasources, you need to use the Window 32 bit ODBC Data Source Administrator or Recital's own  Recital Universal ODBC Manager (32-bit).

The Window 32 bit ODBC Data Source Administrator is %windir%\SysWOW64\odbcad32.exe.
The Recital Universal ODBC Manager (32-bit) can be accessed from the Control Panel (icon view).
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The getUIComponentBitmapData method can create bitmapdata for a given IUIComponent. Pass any UIcomponent to get its respective bitmapdata.

public static function getUIComponentBitmapData(target:IUIComponent):BitmapData {      
    var resultBitmapData:BitmapData = new BitmapData(target.width, target.height);     
    var m:Matrix = new Matrix();     
    resultBitmapData.draw(target, m);     
    return resultBitmapData; 

Now convert the bitmapdata to a jpeg bytearray.

private static function encodeToJPEG(data:BitmapData, quality:Number = 75):ByteArray {     
    var encoder:JPGEncoder = new JPGEncoder(quality);     
    return encoder.encode(data); 

Now encode the ByteArray into Base64.

public static function base64Encode(data:ByteArray):String {     
    var encoder:Base64Encoder = new Base64Encoder();     
    return encoder.flush(); 

Upload the base64 encoded ByteArray to the server.

public static uploadData():void {     
    var url:String = "saveFile.php";     
    var urlRequest:URLRequest = new URLRequest(url);     
    urlRequest.method = URLRequestMethod.POST;     
    var urlLoader:URLLoader = new URLLoader();     
    var urlVariables:URLVariables = new URLVariables();     
    urlVariables.file = jpgEncodedFile;    // as returned from base64Encode() = urlVariables;     

The saveFile.php file on the server.

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Recital implements SQL-92 and most of the SQL-99 standard for SQL, but also provides lower level navigational data access for performing high transaction throughput. It is the choice of the application developer whether to use SQL, navigational data access, or a combination of both depending upon the type of application being developed.
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