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I am pleased to finally report that the Centos release of Redhats 5.3 has been built and is available for download from http://www.centos.org/

The highlights of this release can be found at the following URL: http://www.redhat.com

The main areas of interest in my opinion excluding critical secirty fixes are:

  • Updated hardwaresupport support for the new Intel Core i7 (Nehalem) chips
  • Beefed up virtualiseation support increasing CPU and Ram limits of Virtual machines.
  • Inclusion of the fully open sourced OpenJDK. This makes Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.3 the first enterprise-ready solution with a fully open source Java stack when combined with JBoss Enterprise Application Platform.


For those who already have Centos 5.2 installed you can simply receive the update via Yum.

Before you do the following, check that  you do not have 3rd party repo's and the Centos-testing repo enabled.

You can display the currently enabled repo's using the following command.

$ yum repolist



Then as root at the prompt type:

$ yum update

 

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It would appear that gigabit LAN is not! In fact it often runs at the same speed as 100Mbps LAN. Let's look at why exactly.

After configuring your network you can use the ifconfig command to see what speeds the LAN is connected. Even though 1000Mbps is reported by the card, the reality is that the overall throughtput may well be ~100Mpbs. You can try copying a large file using scp to demonstrate this.

As it turns out, in order to use a gigabit LAN you need to use CAT6 cables. CAT5 and CAT5E are not good enough. End result, the ethernet cards throttle back the speed to reduce dropped packets and errors.

You can find a good article here titled Squeeze Your Gigabit NIC for Top Performance. After tuning up the TCP parameters i found that it made no dfifference. The principal reasons behind low gigabit ethernet performance can be summed up as follows.

  1. Need to use CAT6 cables
  2. Slow Disk speed
  3. Limitations of the PCI bus which the gigabit ethernet cards use

You can get an idea about the disk speed using the hdparm command:

Display the disk partitions and choose the main linux partition which has the / filesystem.

# fdisk -l


Then get disk cache and disk read statistics:

# hdparm -Tt /dev/sda0


On my desktop system the sata disk perfomance is a limiting factor. These were the results:

/dev/sda1:
Timing cached reads:   9984 MB in  2.00 seconds = 4996.41 MB/sec
Timing buffered disk reads:   84 MB in  3.13 seconds =  58.49 MB/sec

Well, that equates to a raw disk read speed of 58.49 * 8 = 467Mbps which is half the speed of a gigabit LAN.

So.. NAS storage with lots of memory looks to be the way to go... If you use the right cables!


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This article discusses Recital database security: from operating system file permissions through file and field protection to DES3 encryption.

Overview

A company's data is extremely valuable and must be protected, both in operation and in physical file format. Recital products provide a range of ways to protect your data.

Operating System File Permissions

The most basic level of database security is provided by the operating system. Recital database tables and indexes are individual files with their own respective operating system file permissions. Read permission is required to open a table and write permission to update a table. If a user does not have read permission they are denied access. Without write permission, a table will be opened read-only.

Here the owner, root, and members of the recital group have write permission, so can update the example table unless additional protection applies. Other users can only open the example table read-only.

# ls -l example*
-rwxrwxr-x    1 root     recital       147 Nov 29 14:27 example.dbd
-rwxrwxr-x    1 root     recital     41580 Nov 29 14:27 example.dbf
-rwxrwxr-x    1 root     recital     13312 Nov 29 14:28 example.dbt
-rwxrwxr-x    1 root     recital     19456 Nov 29 14:28 example.dbx

Note: As in the example above, a table's associated files should have the same permissions as the table itself:

File Extension

File Type

.dbd

Dictionary

.dbf

Table

.dbt

Memo

.dbx

Index


Database Dictionary

Each Recital table may have a Database Dictionary. The Dictionary can be used both to protect the integrity of the data and to protect access to the data. This section covers Column Constraints, Triggers, Security and Protection.

Column Constraints: Data Integrity

The Dictionary attributes or constraints either prevent the entry of incorrect data, e.g. must_enter and validation or aid the entry of correct data, e.g. default, picture and choicelist. The Dictionary can be modified in the character mode CREATE/MODIFY STRUCTURE worksurface, via SQL statements, or in the Recital Enterprise Studio Database Administrator.


Click image to display full size

Fig 1: MODIFY STRUCTURE Worksurface: Dictionary.

The SQL Column Constraints are as follows:

Constraint

Description

AUTO_INCREMENT | AUTOINC

Used to auto increment the value of a column.

CALCULATED

Used to calculate the value of a column.

CHECK | SET CHECK

Used to validate a change to the value of a column.

DEFAULT

Used to set a default value for the specified column.

DESCRIPTION

Used set the column description for the specified column.

ERROR

Used to define an error message to be displayed when a validation check fails.

FOREIGN KEY

Used to define a column as a Foreign Key for a parent table.

NOCPTRANS

Used to prevent code page translation for character and memo fields.

NOT NULL | NULL

Used to disallow/allow NULL values.

PRIMARY KEY

Used to define a table’s Primary Key.

RANGE

Used to specify minimum and maximum values for a date or numerical column.

RECALCULATE

Used to force recalculation of calculated columns when a column’s value changes.

REFERENCES

Used to create a relationship to an index key of another table.

UNIQUE

Used to define the column as a candidate index for the table


These can be specified in CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statements:

exec sql
  OPEN DATABASE southwind;
exec sql
  ALTER TABLE customers ADD COLUMN timeref char(8) CHECK validtime(timeref)
  ERROR "Not a valid time string";

Click image to display full size

Fig 2: Database Administrator: Column Constraints and Attributes.

TRIGGERS

Table Level Triggers are event-driven procedures called before an I/O operation. These can be used to introduce another layer of checks before a particular operation is permitted to take place or to simply set up logging of those operations.

The CREATE/MODIFY STRUCTURE worksurface <TRIGGERS> menu bar option allows you to specify table level triggers. You may edit a trigger procedure from within the <TRIGGERS> menu by placing the cursor next to the procedure name and pressing the [HELP] key. A text window pops up for editing. If the table triggers are stored in separate <.prg> files, rather than in a procedure library, procedures need not be predefined (SET PROCEDURE) before using the table.


Click image to display full size

Fig 3: MODIFY STRUCTURE Worksurface: Triggers.

 

The following triggers can be selected and associated with a specified procedure name in the <TRIGGERS> menu.

Trigger

Description

UPDATE

The specified procedure is called prior to an update operation on the table. If the procedure returns .F., then the UPDATE is canceled.

DELETE

The specified procedure is called prior to a delete operation on the table. If the procedure returns .F., then the DELETE is canceled.

APPEND

The specified procedure is called prior to an append operation on the table. If the procedure returns .F., then the APPEND is canceled.

OPEN

The specified procedure is called after an open operation on the table.

CLOSE

The specified procedure is called prior to a close operation on the table.

ROLLBACK

The specified procedure is called when a user presses the [ABANDON] key in a forms based operation.


The Recital Enterprise Studio Database Administrator also allows you to associate existing programs as Table Trigger Procedures.

Click image to display full size

Fig 4: Database Administrator: Triggers.

 

Programmatically, Trigger Procedures can also be associated with a table using SQL. The following table constraints may be applied in the SQL CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements:

Trigger

Description

ONUPDATE

The specified procedure is called prior to an update operation on the table. If the procedure returns .F., then the UPDATE is canceled.
e.g. SQL> ALTER TABLE customer modify ONUPDATE "p_update";

ONDELETE

The specified procedure is called prior to a delete operation on the table. If the procedure returns .F., then the DELETE is canceled.
e.g. SQL> ALTER TABLE customer modify ONDELETE "p_delete";

ONINSERT

The specified procedure is called prior to an insert operation on the table. If the procedure returns .F., then the INSERT is canceled.
e.g. SQL> ALTER TABLE customer modify ONINSERT "p_insert";

ONOPEN

The specified procedure is called after an open operation on the table.
e.g. SQL> ALTER TABLE customer modify ONOPEN "p_open";

ONCLOSE

The specified procedure is called prior to a close operation on the table.
e.g. SQL> ALTER TABLE customer modify ONCLOSE "p_close";

ONROLLBACK

The specified procedure is called when a user presses the [ABANDON] key in a forms based operation.
e.g. SQL> ALTER TABLE customer modify ONROLLBACK "p_rollback";


SECURITY

As mentioned above, all Recital files are subject to Operating System read and write permissions. These permissions can be further refined, while still using the Operating System user and group IDs, in the Security and Protection sections of the Dictionary. The Security section handles table based operations and the Protection section focuses on individual fields.

Security and Protection rules can be defined in the CREATE/MODIFY STRUCTURE worksurface of Recital Terminal Developer, via the SQL GRANT and REVOKE statements or in the Recital Enterprise Studio Database Administrator.

Click image to display full size

Fig 5: MODIFY STRUCTURE Worksurface: Security.

 

The Security section has table operations for which Access Control Strings can be specified. An Access Control String (ACS) is a range of valid user identification codes, and is used to restrict table operations to certain individuals or groups. Each user on the system is allocated a group number and a user number. The user identification code is the combination of group and user numbers. When constructing an Access Control String of linked user identification codes, wild card characters may be used.

Example ACS

Description

[1,2]

In group 1, user 2

[100,*]

In group 100, all users

[2-7,*]

In groups 2-7, all users

[*,100-200]

In all groups, users 100-200

[1,*]&[2-7,1-7]

In group 1, all users, in groups 2-7, users 1-7


Please note that the maximum ACS length is 254 characters. OpenVMS group and user numbers are stored and specified in octal. On other Operating Systems, group and user numbers are stored and specified in decimal.

Access Control Strings may be associated with the following operations:

Operation

Description

READONLY

Users specified in the ACS have read-only access to the table. All other users have update access.

UPDATE

Users specified in the ACS have update access to the table. All other users are restricted to read-only access.

APPEND

Users specified in the ACS can append records into the table. No other users can append.

DELETE

Users specified in the ACS can delete records from the table. No other users can delete.

COPY

Users specified in the ACS can copy records from the table. No other users can copy.

ADMIN

Users specified in the ACS can use the following commands:
SET DICTIONARY TO
MODIFY STRUCTURE
PACK
ZAP
REINDEX
All other users cannot, except the creator of the table, who is always granted ADMIN access.


The corresponding SQL privileges are:

Operation

Description

SELECT

Users specified in the ACS may name any column in a SELECT statement. All other users have update access.

UPDATE

Users specified in the ACS may name any column in an UPDATE statement. All other users are restricted to read-only access.

INSERT

Users specified in the ACS can INSERT rows into the table. No other users can INSERT.

DELETE

Users specified in the ACS can DELETE rows from the table. No other users can DELETE.

ALTER

Users specified in the ACS can use the ALTER TABLE statement on this table.

READONLY

Users specified in the ACS may read any column in a SELECT statement. All other users have update access.


// Grant insert privilege for the customer table
exec sql
  OPEN DATABASE southwind;
exec sql
  GRANT UPDATE (lastname, firstname)
  INSERT ON customers
  TO '[20,100]'; 
	
// Grant all privileges to all users
exec sql
  OPEN DATABASE southwind;
exec sql
  GRANT ALL 
  ON shippers TO PUBLIC;

PROTECTION

Security and Protection rules can be defined in the CREATE/MODIFY STRUCTURE worksurface of Recital Terminal Developer, via the SQL GRANT and REVOKE statements or in the Recital Enterprise Studio Database Administrator.

Click image to display full size

Fig 6: Database Administrator: Protection.

 


The format of the ACS is the same as in <SECURITY> above. The following protection can be defined:

Operation

Description

READONLY

Users specified in the ACS have read-only access to the field. All other users have update access.

UPDATE

Users specified in the ACS have update access to the field. All other users are restricted to read-only access.


Recital Terminal Developer also has 'HIDDEN' Protection:

Operation

Description

HIDDEN

Users specified in the ACS see the 'hiddenfield'character rather than the data in the field. All other users see the data.


Hidden fields can be accessed and viewed on a work surface, but the field contains the hiddenfield character, ‘?’. If the field is referenced in an expression, it will contain the following: blanks for character fields, ‘F’ for logical fields, 00/00/0000 for date fields and blank for memo fields.

The corresponding SQL privileges are:

Operation

Description

SELECT

Users specified in the ACS may name the column in a SELECT statement. All other users have update access.

UPDATE

Users specified in the ACS may name the column in an UPDATE statement. All other users are restricted to read-only access.

READONLY

Users specified in the ACS may read the column in a SELECT statement. All other users have update access.


// Grant update privilege for columns lastname and firstname from the customer table
exec sql
  OPEN DATABASE southwind;
exec sql
  GRANT UPDATE (lastname, firstname)
  customers TO '[20,100]';

Encryption

From Recital 8.5 onwards, Recital installations that have the additional DES3 license option have the ability to encrypt the data held in Recital database tables. Once a database table has been encrypted, the data cannot be accessed unless the correct three-part encryption key is specified, providing additional security for sensitive data.

ENCRYPT

The ENCRYPT Recital 4GL command is used to encrypt the data in the specified table or tables matching a skeleton. If the skeleton syntax is used, then all matching tables will be given the same encryption key. The encryption key is a three part comma-separated key and may optionally be enclosed in angled brackets. Each part of the key can be a maximum of 8 characters. The key is DES3 encrypted and stored in a .dkf file with the same basename as the table. After encryption, the three parts of the key must be specified correctly before the table can be accessed.

// Encrypt individual tables
encrypt customers key "key_1,key_2,key_3"
encrypt employees key "<key_1,key_2,key_3>"

// Encrypt all .dbf files in the directory
encrypt *.dbf key "key_1,key_2,key_3"
SET ENCRYPTION

If a database table is encrypted, the correct three-part encryption key must be specified before the table's data or structure can be accessed. The SET ENCRYPTION TO set command can be used to specify a default encryption key to be used whenever an encrypted table is accessed without the key being specified. The encryption key is a three part comma-separated key.

If the command to access the table includes the key, either by appending it to the table filename specification or using an explicit clause, this will take precedence over the key defined by SET ENCRYPTION TO.

Issuing SET ENCRYPTION TO without a key causes any previous setting to be cleared. The key must then be specified for each individual encrypted table.

The default key defined by SET ENCRYPTION is only active when SET ENCRYPTION is ON. SET ENCRYPTION OFF can be used to temporarily disable the default key. The SET ENCRYPTION ON | OFF setting does not change the default key itself. SET ENCRYPTION is ON by default.

// Encrypt individual tables
encrypt customers key "key_1,key_2,key_3"
encrypt shippers key "key_2,key_3,key_4"
// Specify a default encryption key
set encryption to "key_1,key_2,key_3"
// Open customers table using the default encryption key
use customers
// Specify shippers table's encryption key
use shippers<key_2,key_3,key_4>
// Disable the default encryption key
set encryption to
// Specify the individual encryption keys
use customers encryption "key_1,key_2,key_3"
use shippers<key_2,key_3,key_4>
DECRYPT

The DECRYPT command is used to decrypt the data in the specified table or tables matching a skeleton. The specified key must contain the three part comma-separated key used to previously encrypt the table and may optionally be enclosed in angled brackets. The skeleton syntax can only be used if all tables matching the skeletonhave the same key.

The DECRYPT command decrypts the data and removes the table’s .dkf file. After decryption, the key need no longer be specified to gain access to the table.

// Decrypt individual tables
decrypt customers key "key_1,key_2,key_3"
decrypt employees key "<key_1,key_2,key_3>"

// Decrypt all .dbf files in the directory
decrypt *.dbf key "key_1,key_2,key_3"

All of the following commands are affected when a table is encrypted:

  • APPEND FROM
  • COPY FILE
  • COPY STRUCTURE
  • COPY TO
  • DIR
  • USE
  • SQL INSERT
  • SQL SELECT
  • SQL UPDATE
APPEND FROM
Used to append records to the active table from another table.
// The key must be specified for an encrypted source table
use mycustomers append from customers encryption "key_1,key_2,key_3"; for country = "UK"
COPY FILE
Used to copy a file.
// The key file must also be copied for an encrypted source table
// as the target table will be encrypted
encrypt customers key "key_1,key_2,key_3" copy file customers.dbf to newcustomers.dbf copy file customers.dkf to newcustomers.dkf use newcustomers encryption "key_1,key_2,key_3"
COPY STRUCTURE
Used to copy a table's structure to a new table.
// The key file is automatically copied for an encrypted source table
// and the target table encrypted
encrypt customers key "key_1,key_2,key_3"
use customers encryption "key_1,key_2,key_3" copy structure to blankcust use blankcust encryption "key_1,key_2,key_3"
COPY TO
Used to copy a table.
// By default, the key file is automatically copied for an encrypted
// source table and the target table encrypted with the same key
encrypt customers key "key_1,key_2,key_3"
use customers encryption "key_1,key_2,key_3"
copy to newcustomers
use newcustomers encryption "key_1,key_2,key_3"

// You can also create a copy with a different key
encrypt customers key "key_1,key_2,key_3"
use customers encryption "key_1,key_2,key_3"
copy to newcustomers encrypt "newkey_1,newkey_2,newkey_3"
use newcustomers encryption "newkey_1,newkey_2,newkey_3"

// Or create a decrypted copy
encrypt customers key "key_1,key_2,key_3"
use customers encryption "key_1,key_2,key_3"
copy to newcustomers decrypt
use newcustomers

// You can also create an encrypted copy of a non-encrypted source table
use orders
copy to encorders encrypt "newkey_1,newkey_2,newkey_3"
use encorders encryption "newkey_1,newkey_2,newkey_3"
DIR
Used to display a directory listing of tables.
// Encrypted tables are flagged as such with (DES3)
> open database southwind
> dir
Current database: southwind
Tables				# Records		Last Update	Size		Dictionary	Triggers	Security
categories.dbf			8			01/10/06		24576	None		None		None
cisamdemo.dbf       ---> CISAM/Bridge        [cisamdemo]
customers.dbf (DES3)		91			05/12/04		49600	None		None		None
employees.dbf			9			05/12/04		25520	None		None		None
example.dbf   (DES3)		100			12/24/05		38080	Yes		Yes		None
order_details.dbf			2155			05/12/04		296320	None		None		None
orders.dbf				829			05/12/04		232704	None		None		None
products.dbf			77			05/12/04		37112	None		None		None
productsbyname.dbf		77			05/12/04		29104	None		None		None
shippers.dbf  (DES3)		3			05/12/04		20864	None		None		None
suppliers.dbf			29			12/08/05		29992	Yes		None		None

   0.765 MB in 11 files.
   1.093 GB remaining on drive.
USE
Used to open a table.
// The three part key must be specified to open an
// encrypted table.  All of the following are valid.
// 1. Specifying a default encryption key before opening the table
set encryption to "key_1,key_2,key_3"
use customers
// 2. Appending the key to the filename
use customers<key_1,key_2,key_3>
// 3. Using the ENCRYPTION clause, optionally specifying angled brackets
use customers encryption "key_1,key_2,key_3"
use customers encryption "<key_1,key_2,key_3>"
SQL INSERT
Used to add a row to a table via SQL.
// The three part key can be specified using a
// default encryption key before opening the table
exec sql
  OPEN DATABASE southwind;
exec sql
  SET ENCRYPTION TO "key_1,key_2,key_3";
exec sql
  INSERT INTO customers
  (customerid, companyname)
  VALUES
  ('RECIT','Recital Corporation');
// Or by appending the key to the filename
exec sql
  OPEN DATABASE southwind;
exec sql
  INSERT INTO customers<key_1,key_2,key_3>
  (customerid, companyname)
  VALUES
  ('RECIT','Recital Corporation');
SQL SELECT
Used to return data from a table via SQL.
// The three part key can be specified using a
// default encryption key before opening the table
exec sql
  OPEN DATABASE southwind;
exec sql
  SET ENCRYPTION TO "key_1,key_2,key_3";
exec sql
  SELECT * FROM customers;
// Or by appending the key to the filename
exec sql
  OPEN DATABASE southwind;
exec sql
  SELECT * FROM customers<key_1,key_2,key_3>;
SQL UPDATE
Used to update data in a table via SQL.
// The three part key can be specified using a
// default encryption key before opening the table
exec sql
  OPEN DATABASE southwind;
exec sql
  SET ENCRYPTION TO "key_1,key_2,key_3";
exec sql
  UPDATE customers
  SET companyname='Recital Corporation Inc.'
  WHERE customerid='RECIT';
// Or by appending the key to the filename
exec sql
  OPEN DATABASE southwind;
exec sql
  UPDATE customers<key_1,key_2,key_3>
  SET companyname='Recital Corporation Inc.'
  WHERE customerid='RECIT';

Summary

Recital offers a range of ways to keep your data secure. These start with the Operating System read/write permissions, which can be further refined to the level of table I/O operations and then field access in the Dictionary based Security and Protection rules. The Dictionary also provides the means to protect the integrity of the data via data validation and to assist in correct data entry through the use of choicelists, help messages and picture clauses etc. A further role of the Dictionary is in the provision of Table Triggers, which can be used to enable a programmatic response to table operations to add in additional checks or audit trails. For the most sensitive data, DES3 encryption is the ultimate protection: encrypting the physical data on the disk and only permitting table access on the production of the three part encryption key.

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By default Recital uses PAM to authenticate users.  It is also possible to tell PAM to use Kerberos.  Simply replace the existing entries in the /etc/pam.d/recital file with the ones below:

auth       sufficient   pam_krb5.so try_first_pass
auth       sufficient   pam_unix.so shadow nullok try_first_pass
account    required     pam_unix.so broken_shadow
account    [default=bad success=ok user_unknown=ignore] pam_krb5.so
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In Adobe's own words:

"Adobe® AIR® is a cross-operating system runtime that lets developers combine HTML, Ajax, Adobe Flash®, and Adobe Flex® technologies to deploy rich Internet applications (RIAs) on the desktop."

The outcome of this combination of technologies is that developers can design and render quite beautiful user interfaces cross platform. For us desktop Linux users it is nice to have an additional avenue for obtaining and running attractive desktop applications.

Examples of great Adobe air applications are Adobe.com for My Desktop, TweetDeck and the Times Reader. You can download these applications and many more at the Adobe Marketplace.

The easiest way to install Adobe Air on Fedora 12 is to download the latest build from Adobe, click here.

Once you have downloaded the .bin file do the following at the shell:
su -
chmod +x AdobeAIRInstaller.bin
./AdobeAIRInstaller.bin
Once you have Air installed, there is a slight tweak you will have to do to get it running on Fedora 12, it is related to the security certificates. This can be remedied in one simple line at the shell prompt as root.
su -
for c in /etc/opt/Adobe/certificates/crypt/*.0; do aucm -n $(basename $c) -t true; done
What this line is doing is using the aucm which is the Adobe Unix certificate manager to set the certificates installed as trusted.
You will now be able to go to the Adobe Marketplace and download and run Air applications without any issues.

Enjoy!

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We are pleased to announce the release of Recital 10.0.3.

Here is a brief list of features and functionality that you will find in the 10.0.3 release.

  • New Commands:
    - SET TMPNAMPATH ON|OFF
    - REMOVE TABLE
  • New Functions:
    - CURSORGETPROP()
    - CURSORSETPROP()
    - CURVAL()
    - GETFLDSTATE()
    - OLDVAL()
    - TABLEREVERT()
    - TABLEUPDATE()
    - SETFLDSTATE()
  • Enhanced Functions:
    - TMPNAM() - additional parameter to specify the return of basename only
    - MAILATTACH() - parameter changed from array to filename to allow directory and file extension to be specified
  • Enhancements:
    - DO level increased from 32 to 64.
  • Fixes:
    - Delay exiting Recital after SYS(3) or SYS(2015)
    - SET SOFTSEEK issue when search key above first record in index
    - Compilation error with REPLACE command after UDF call
    - FETCH INTO memvars error
    - END TRANSACTION at command prompt error
    - ROLLBACK locking error
    - Linux ODBC Driver undefined symbol error
    - RELEASE variable with same name as variable in calling program issue
    - SQLCODE() issue on non-gateway data access
    - Issuing two SQLEXEC() calls error
    - LASTSEQNO() in workareas > 1 error
    - SET RELATION to detail table in workarea 1 issue
    - LIST STATUS on empty table delay
    - SET AUTOCATALOG alias entries error
    - ADD OBJECT in DEFINE CLASS error
    - DEACTIVATE WINDOW error
    - SORT error
    - Other reported bugs
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In this article Barry Mavin, CEO and Chief Software Architect for Recital, details on how to use the Client Drivers provided with the Recital Database Server to work with local or remote server-side JDBC data sources.

Overview

The Recital Universal .NET Data Provider provides connectivity to the Recital Database Server running on any supported platform (Windows, Linux, Unix, OpenVMS) using the RecitalConnection object.

The Recital Universal JDBC Driver provides the same functionality for java applications.

The Recital Universal ODBC Driver provides the same functionality for applications that use ODBC.

Each of the above Client Drivers use a connection string to describe connections parameters.

The basic format of a connection string consists of a series of keyword/value pairs separated by semicolons. The equals sign (=) connects each keyword and its value.

The following table lists the valid names for keyword/values.


Name Default Description

Data Source
-or-
Server
-or-Nodename

  The name or network address of the instance of the Recital Database Server which to connect to.
Directory   The target directory on the remote server where data to be accessed resides. This is ignored when a Database is specified.

Encrypt
-or-
Encryption

false When true, DES3 encryption is used for all data sent between the client and server.
Initial Catalog
-or-
Database
  The name of the database on the remote server.
Password
-or-
Pwd
  The password used to authenticate access to the remote server.
User ID   The user name used to authenticate access to the remote server.

Connection Pooling
-or-
Pool

false Enable connection pooling to the server. This provides for one connection to be shared.
Logging false Provides for the ability to log all server requests for debugging purposes
Rowid true When Rowid is true (the default) a column will be post-fixed to each SELECT query that is a unique row identifier. This is used to provide optimised UPDATE and DELETE operations. If you use the RecitalSqlGrid, RecitalSqlForm, or RecitalSqlGridForm components then this column is not visible but is used to handle updates to the underlying data source.
Logfile   The name of the logfile for logging
Gateway  

Opens an SQL gateway(Connection) to a foreign SQL data source on the remote server.
Using Gateways, you can transparently access the following local or remote data sources:

  • Recital
  • Oracle
  • ODBC (Server-side ODBC data sources)
  • JDBC (Server-side JDBC data sources)
  • ADO (Use this to connect to SQL Server and other Native Windows OLEDB data sources)
  • MySQL
  • PostgreSQL
The gateway can be specified in several formats:
servertype@nodename:username/password-database
e.g.
oracle@nodename:username/password-database
mysql@nodename:username/password-database
postgresql@nodename:username/password-database
-or-
odbc:odbc_data_source_name_on_server
oledb:oledb_connection_string_on_server
jdbc:jdbc_driver_path_on_server;jdbc:Recital:args

To connect to a server-side JDBC data source, you ue the gateway=value key/value pair in the following way.

gateway=jdbc:jdbc_driver_path_on_server;jdbc:Recital:args

You can find examples of connection strings for most ODBC and OLE DB data sources by clicking here.

Example in C# using the Recital Universal .NET Data Provider:
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// include the references below
using System.Data;
using Recital.Data;

////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// The following code example creates an instance of a DataAdapter that 
// uses a Connection to the Recital Database Server, and a gateway to
// Recital Southwind database. It then populates a DataTable 
// in a DataSet with the list of customers via the JDBC driver. 
// The SQL statement and Connection arguments passed to the DataAdapter 
// constructor are used to create the SelectCommand property of the
// DataAdapter.
public DataSet SelectCustomers()
{
	string gateway = "jdbc:/usr/java/lib/RecitalJDBC/Recital/sql/RecitalDriver;"+
			"jdbc:Recital:Data Source=localhost;database=southwind";       
	RecitalConnection swindConn = new
			RecitalConnection("Data Source=localhost;gateway=\""+gateway+"\");
	RecitalCommand selectCMD = new
			RecitalCommand("SELECT CustomerID, CompanyName FROM Customers", swindConn);
	selectCMD.CommandTimeout = 30;
	RecitalDataAdapter custDA = new RecitalDataAdapter();    
	custDA.SelectCommand = selectCMD;    
	swindConn.Open();    
	DataSet custDS = new DataSet();
	custDA.Fill(custDS, "Customers");    
	swindConn.Close();
	return custDS;
}
Example in Java using the Recital Universal JDBC Driver:
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// standard imports required by the JDBC driver
import java.sql.*;
import java.io.*;
import java.net.URL;
import java.math.BigDecimal;
import Recital.sql.*;

////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// The following code example creates a Connection to the Recital // Database Server, and a gateway to the Recital Southwind database. // It then retrieves all the customers via the JDBC driver. public void SelectCustomers() { // setup the Connection URL for JDBC String gateway = "jdbc:/usr/java/lib/RecitalJDBC/Recital/sql/RecitalDriver;"+ "jdbc:Recital:Data Source=localhost;database=southwind"; String url = "jdbc:Recital:Data Source=localhost;gateway=\""+gateway+"\";
// load the Recital Universal JDBC Driver new RecitalDriver(); // create the connection Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(url); // create the statement Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); // perform the SQL query ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT CustomerID, CompanyName FROM Customers"); // fetch the data while (rs.next()) { String CompanyID = rs.getString("CustomerID"); String CompanyName = rs.getString("CompanyName"); // do something with the data... } // Release the statement stmt.close(); // Disconnect from the server con.close(); }
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Recital provides the following additional benefits:

  • Easy to Install and Deploy - Users can set up Recital in minutes enabling organizations to deliver new applications faster than other databases.
  • Easy to Administer - Recital is a low administration database that eliminates the need for highly trained, skilled, and costly database administrators to maintain the database.
  • High Performance - Superior database performance for the most demanding of OLTP applications. Additionally, Clustered Recital provides 99.999% availability.
  • Embeddable Library - Recital Embedded Edition provides in-process data storage engine that delivers all the features of a traditional relational database but in a size which makes it ideally suited for ISVs/VARs who need a small footprint and easy to use toolkit.
  • Platform Independence - Recital runs on Linux, Solaris, AIX, HP-UX, Windows, and Mac OS X giving organizations complete flexibility in delivering a solution on the platform of their choice.
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Recital 10 introduced the REQUIRE() and REQUIRE_ONCE() statement.

The REQUIRE() statement includes and executes the contents of the specified file at the current program execution level.

When a file is included, the code it contains inherits the variable scope of the line on which the include occurs. Any variables, procedures, functions or classes declared in the included file will be available at the current program execution level.

The REQUIRE_ONCE() statement is identical to the REQUIRE() statement except that Recital will check to see if the file as already been included and if so ignore the command.

The full syntax is:
REQUIRE( expC )
REQUIRE_ONCE( expC )

e.g.

REQUIRE_ONCE( "myapp/myglobals.prg" )
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The Recital Universal ODBC Driver is a 32 bit implementation, so is not listed in the 64 bit ODBC Data Source Administrator, which is the default administrator accessed from Control Panel | Administration Tools.

So, to create and configure Recital ODBC datasources, you need to use the Window 32 bit ODBC Data Source Administrator or Recital's own  Recital Universal ODBC Manager (32-bit).

The Window 32 bit ODBC Data Source Administrator is %windir%\SysWOW64\odbcad32.exe.
The Recital Universal ODBC Manager (32-bit) can be accessed from the Control Panel (icon view).
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