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Key features of the Recital scripting language include:

What are the key feature of the Recital database?

  • High performance database application scripting language
  • Modern object-oriented language features
  • Easy to learn, easy to use
  • Fast, just-in-time compiled
  • Develop desktop or web applications
  • Cross-platform support
  • Extensive built-in functions
  • Superb built-in SQL command integration
  • Navigational data access for the most demanding applications
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Recital 10 enhanced Recital by enabling it to be used in bash shell scripts and in shell commands which use pipes and/or redirect stdin and stdout. If stdin is not redirected then recital will startup and operate as normal in a terminal window. Additionally you can use heredoc to denote a block of recital commands that should be executed. Note that when used in this manner, no UI commands can be executed and no user interaction is allowed.  
# recital < mrprog.prg 
# recital < myprog.prg > myoutput.txt
# recital > myoutput.txt <<END
use customers
list structure
# echo "select * from sales!customers where overdue" | recital | wc -l
Individual commands can be executed in shell scripts.
# recital -c "create database sales"
# recital -c "create table sales!invoices (id int, name char(25), due date)"
Expressions can be evaluated and used in shell scripts.
# VER=`recital -e "version(1)"`
You can view what command line options are available by typing:
# recital --help
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By default Recital uses PAM to authenticate users.  It is also possible to tell PAM to use Kerberos.  Simply replace the existing entries in the /etc/pam.d/recital file with the ones below:

auth       sufficient try_first_pass
auth       sufficient shadow nullok try_first_pass
account    required broken_shadow
account    [default=bad success=ok user_unknown=ignore]
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Recital is a rich and versatile product with many ways to do the same thing. Developers usually write code in the way that they are accustomed to without paying much attention to how this will perform in a multi-user environment with large amounts of users and transactions. The best way to optimize Recital applications is to use the built-in tuning capabilities introduced in Recital 10.

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This is a good primer for getting familiar with using Infiniband with Redhat/Centos Linux.

Getting Started with InfiniBand

The first step to using a new infiniband based network is to get the right packages installed. These are the infiniband related packages we ship and what they are there for (Note, the Fedora packages have not all been built or pushed to the repos yet, so their mention here is as a "Coming soon" variety, not an already done variety):

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Unison is a file-synchronization tool for Mac, Unix/Linux and Windows. It allows two replicas of a collection of files and directories to be stored on different hosts (or different disks on the same host), modified separately, and then brought up to date by propagating the changes in each replica to the other. 

Binary distributions for Unison can be found here.

The user manual can be found here
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Subclipse is an Eclipse Team Provider plug-in providing support for Subversion within the Eclipse IDE. This plugin is required in order to use the recital eclipse workspace.
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Many motherboards nowadays have integrated gigabit ethernet that use the Realtek NIC chipset.

The Realtek r8168B network card does not work out of the box in Redhat/Centos 5.3: instead of loading the r8168 driver, modprobe loads the r8169 driver, which is broken as can be seen with ifconfig which shows large amounts of dropped packets. A solution is to download the r8168 driver from the Realtek website and install it using the following steps:

Check whether the built-in driver, r8169.ko (or r8169.o for kernel 2.4.x), is installed.

# lsmod | grep r8169

If it is installed remove it.

# rmmod r8169

Download the R8168B linux driver from here into /root.

Unpack the tarball :

# cd /root
# tar vjxf r8168-8.012.00.tar.bz2

Change to the directory:

# cd r8168-8.012.00

If you are running the target kernel, then you should be able to do :

# make clean modules   
# make install
# depmod -a
# insmod ./src/r8168.ko (or r8168.o in linux kernel 2.4.x)

make sure modprobe knows not to use r8169, and that depmod doesn’t find the r8169 module.

# echo "blacklist r8169" >> /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist
# mv /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/r8169.ko   \ /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/r8169.ko.bak

You can check whether the driver is loaded by using the following commands.

# lsmod | grep r8168
# ifconfig -a

If there is a device name, ethX, shown on the monitor, the linux driver is loaded. Then, you can use the following command to activate it.

# ifconfig ethX up

After this you should not see any more dropped packets reported.

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In this article Barry Mavin, CEO and Chief Software Architect for Recital, details how to work with Triggers in the Recital Database Server.


A trigger is a special kind of stored procedure that runs when you modify data in a specified table using one or more of the data modification operations: UPDATE, INSERT, or DELETE.

Triggers can query other tables and can include complex SQL statements. They are primarily useful for enforcing complex business rules or requirements. For example, you can control whether to allow a new order to be inserted based on a customer's current account status.

Triggers are also useful for enforcing referential and data integrity.

Triggers can be used with any data source that is handled natively by the Recital Database Engine. This includes Recital, FoxPro, FoxBASE, Clipper, dBase, CISAM, and RMS data,

Creating and Editing Triggers

To create a new Trigger,  right-click the Procedures node in the Databases tree of the Project Explorer and choose Create. To modify an existing Trigger select the Trigger in the Databases Tree in the Project Explorer by double-clicking on it, or select Modify from the context menu. By convertion we recommend that you name your Stored Procedures beginning with "sp_xxx_", user-defined functions with "f_xxx_", and Triggers with "dt_xxx_", where xxx is the name of the table that they are associated with.

Associating Triggers with a Table

Once you have written your Triggers as detailed above you can associate them with the operations performed on a Table by selecting the Table tab.

The Tables tab allows you to select a Trigger procedure by clicking on the small button at the right of the Text field.

Types of Triggers

As can be seen from the Tables tab detailed below, The Recital Database Server handles 6 distinct types of Triggers.

Open Trigger

The Open Trigger is called after is a table is opened but before any operations are performed on it. You can use this trigger to record a log of table usage or provide a programmable means of checing security. If the Trigger procedure returns .F. (false), then the table is not opened. You can use a TRY...CATCH block around the associated command to inform the user.

Close Trigger

The Close Trigger is called just prior to a table being closed. In this trigger you may find it useful to get transaction counts by using the IOSTATS() built-in 4GL function, and record these values in a transaction log.

Update Trigger

The Update Trigger is called prior to a record update operation being performed. You can use this trigger to perform complex application or data specific validation. If the Trigger procedure returns .F. (false), then the record is not updated. You can use inform the user from within the Trigger procedure the reason that the data cannot be updated.

Delete Trigger

The Delete Trigger is called prior to a record delete operation being performed. You can use this trigger to perform complex application or data specific validation such as cross-table lookups e.g. attempting to delete a customer recortd when there are still open orders for that specific customer. If the Trigger procedure returns .F. (false), then the record is not deleted.

Insert Trigger

The Insert Trigger is called prior to a record insert (append) operation being performed. You can use this trigger to perform such tasks as setting up default values of columns within the record. If the Trigger procedure returns .F. (false), then the record is not inserted.

Rollback Trigger

The RollbackTrigger is called prior to a rollback operation being performed from within a form. If the Trigger procedure returns .F. (false), then the record is not rolled back to its original state.

Testing the Trigger

To test run the Trigger, select the Trigger in the Databases Tree in the Project Explorer by double-clicking on it. Once the Database Administrator is displayed, click the Run button to run the Trigger.

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RTOS( [ <workarea> ] )


The RTOS() function returns all the fields in the current row as a string. The string will begin with the unique row identifier and then the deleted flag, followed by the data in the record. An optional workarea can be specified, otherwise the current workarea will be used


use backup in 0
use accounts in 0
for i = 1 to nrecs
  if rtos(accounts) != rtos(backup)
     debug("record "+recno()+" don't match")

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